Consuls of the Roman Empire


The Consuls of the Roman Republic to 27 BC are given on the separate page devoted to the history of the Republic. Discussion of the office and the meaning of the abbreviations for names can be found there. Here is the continuation of the line of Consuls, which under the Empire usually represents little more than figureheads, although it was part of the system of Augustus to nominate multiple suffecti, since anyone who had held the Consulate was eligible to be a Proconsul and hold high administrative posts. This practice reached a high of 25 suffecti in 190 AD. But, indeed, it is often the Emperor, or members of his family, who holds the office. Also, later suffecti were used to attend ritual events in Rome, when the ordinary Consul(s) was installed attending the Court at one of the later capitals of the Empire, like Milan, Trier, etc. Thus, there would be many suffecti in the list here, but given their nominal importance, I have generally not included them. Because of this, many Consuls are marked as in their second, third, or higher Consulships, when no earlier ones can be found for them. Usually this means that they were previously suffecti. Or, Consuls may appear to skip a Consulship because an earlier one was ruled illegitimate, in a usurpation or dynastic conflict, and the office was retroactively reassigned.

Consuls of the Roman Empire
27Imp. Caesar Augustus VII
M. Vipsanius Agrippa III
26Imp. Caesar Augustus VIII
T. Statilius Taurus II
25Imp. Caesar Augustus IX
M. Junius Silanus
24Imp. Caesar Augustus X
C. Norbanus Flaccus
23Imp. Caesar Augustus XI
A. Terentius Varro Murena
22L. Arruntius
M. Claudius Marcellus Aeserninus
21Q. Aemilius Lepidus
M. Lollius
20M. Appuleius
P. Silius Nerva
19Q. Lucretius Vespillo
C. Sentius Saturninus
suff. M. Vinicius
18Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
P. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
17C. Furnius
C. Junius Silanus
16P. Cornelius Scipio
L. Domitius Ahenobarbus
15L. Calpurnius Piso I
M. Livius Drusus Libo
14Cn. Cornelius Lentulus (Augur)
M. Licinius Crassus Frugi
13Ti. Caesar Augustus I
P. Quinctilius Varus
12P. Sulpicius Quirinus
M. Valerius Messalla Barbatus
11Paullus Fabius Maximus
Q. Aelius Tubero
10Africanus Fabius Maximus
Julus Antonius
9Nero Claudius Drusus
T. Quinctius Crispinus
8C. Asinius Gallus
C. Marcius Censorinus
7Ti. Caesar Augustus II
Cn. Calpurnius Piso
6C. Antistius Vetus
D. Laelius Balbus
5Imp. Caesar Augustus XII
L. Cornelius Sulla
4C. Calvisius Sabinus
L. Passienus Rufus
3L. Cornelius Lentulus
M. Valerius Messalla Messallinus
2Imp. Caesar Augustus XIII
M. Plautius Silvanus
1 BC Cossus Cornelius Lentulus
L. Calpurnius Piso II
1 ADC. Caesar
L. Aemilius Paullus
2P. Alfenus Varus
P. Vinicius
3M. Servilius
L. Aelius Lamia
4Sex. Aelius Catus
C. Sentius Saturninus
5Cn. Cornelius Cinna Magnus
L. Valerius Messalla Volesus
suff. C. Ateius L.f. Capito
6M. Aemilius Lepidus
L. Arruntius
7Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus
A. Licinius Nerva Silianus
8M. Furius Camillus
Sex. Nonius Quinctilianus
suff. L. Apronius
9Q. Sulpicius Camerinus
C. Poppaeus Sabinus
10P. Cornelius Dolabella
C. Junius Silanus
11M'. Aemilius Lepidus
T. Statilius Taurus
12Germanicus Caesar I
C. Fonteius Capito
suff. Valgius Rufus
13L. Munatius Plancus
C. Silius
14Sex. Appuleius
Sex. Pompeius
15Drusus Julius Caesar I
C. Norbanus Flaccus
16 Sisenna Statilius Taurus
L. Scribonius Libo
17 L. Pomponius Flaccus
C. Caelius Rufus
18Ti. Caesar Augustus III
Germanicus Caesar II
19M. Junius Silanus Torquatus
L. Norbanus Balbus
20M. Valerius Messalla
M. Aurelius Cotta
21Ti. Caesar Augustus IV
Drusus Julius Caesar II
22D. Haterius Agrippa
C. Sulpicius Galba
23C. Asinius Pollio
C. Antistius Vetus
24Ser. Cornelius Cethegus
L. Visellius Varro
25Cossus Cornelius Lentulus
M. Asinius Agrippa
26Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus
C. Calvisius Sabinus
27M. Licinius Crassus Frugi
L. Calpurnius Piso
28C. Appius Junius Silanus
P. Silius Nerva
29L. Rubellius Geminus
C. Fufius Geminus
30M. Vinicius I
L. Cassius Longinus
31Ti. Caesar Augustus V
L. Aelius Sejanus
32Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
L. Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus
33Serv. Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus I
L. Cornelius Sulla Felix
34L. Vitellius
Paullus Fabius Persicus
35 C. Cestius Gallus
M. Servilius Nonianus
suff. D. Valerius Asiaticus I
36Sex. Papinius
Q. Plautius
37Cn. Acerronius Proculus
C. Petronius Pontius Nigrinus
38M. Aquila Julianus
C. Nonius Asprenas
39C. Caesar Augustus II
L. Apronius Caesianus
40C. Caesar Augustus III
41C. Caesar Augustus IV
Cn. Sentius Saturninus
42Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus II
C. Caecina Largus
43Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus III
L. Vitellius II
44C. Passienus Crispus II
T. Statilius Taurus
45M. Vinicius II
T. Statilius Taurus Corvinus
46D. Valerius Asiaticus II
M. Junius Silanus
47Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus IV
L. Vitellius III
48 A. Vitellius Germanicus
L. Vipstanus Publicola
49Q. Veranius
C. Pompeius Longus Gallus
50C. Antistius Vetus II
M. Svillius Nerullinus
51Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus V
Ser. Cornelius Salvidienus Orfitus
suff. T. Flavius Vespasianus I
52Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix
L. Salvius Otho Titianus
53D. Junius Silanus Torquatus
Q. Haterius Antoninus
54M'. Acilius Aviola
M. Asinius Marcellus
55Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus I
L. Antistius Vetus
56Q. Volusius Saturninus
P. Cornelius Scipio
57Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus II
L. Calpurnius Piso
58Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus III
M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus
59C. Vipstanus Apronianus
C. Fonteius Capito
60Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus IV
Cossus Cornelius Lentulus
61P. Petronius Turpilianus
L. Caesennius Paetus
62P. Marius Celsus
L. Afinius Gallus
63C. Memmius Regulus
L. Verginius Rufus I
64C. Laecanius Bassus
M. Licinius Crassus Frugi
65A. Licinius Nerva Silianus
M. Julius Vestinus Atticus
66C. Luccius Telesinus
C. Suetonius Paullinus II
67Fonteius Capito
L. Julius Rufus
68P. Galerius Trachalus
Ti. Catius Asconius Silius Italicus
69Ser. Sulpicius Galba Imp. Caesar Augustus II
T. Vinius (Rufinus?)
suff. Fabius Valens
70Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus II
T. Caesar Vespasianus I
71Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus III
M. Cocceius Nerva
72Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus IV
T. Caesar Vespasianus II
73Caesar Domitianus II
L. Valerius Catullus Messallinus
74Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus V
T. Caesar Vespasianus III
75Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VI
T. Caesar Vespasianus IV
76Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VII
T. Caesar Vespasianus V
77Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VIII
T. Caesar Vespasianus VI
78D. Junius Novius Priscus Rufus
L. Ceionius Commodus
79Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus IX
T. Caesar Vespasianus VII
80Imp. T. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VIII
Caesar Domitianus VII
81L. Fl. Silua Nonius Bassus
L. Asinius Pollio Verrucosus
82Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus VIII
T. Fl. Sabinus
83Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus IX
Q. Petillius Rufus II
84Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus X
C. Oppius Sabinus
85Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XI
T. Aurelius Fluvus II
86Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XII
Ser. Cornelius Dolabella Petronianus
87Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XIII
L. Volusius Saturninus
88Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XIV
L. Minucius Rufus
89T. Aurelius Fuluus
M. Asinius Atratinus
90Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XV
M. Cocceius Nerva II
91M'. Acilius Glabrio
M. Ulpius Traianus
92Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XVI
Q. Volusius Saturninus
93Sex. Pompeius Collega
Q. Peducaeus Priscinus
94L. Nonius Calpurnius Asprenas Torquatus
T. Sextius Magius Lateranus
95Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XVII
T. Flavius Clemens
96C. Manlius Valens
C. Antistius Vetus
97Imp. Caesar Nerva Augustus III
L. Verginius Rufus III
98Imp. Caesar Nerva Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus II
99A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus
Q. Sosius Senecio I
100Imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus III
Sex. Julius Frontinus III
101Imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus IV
Q. Articuleius Paetus
102L. Julius Ursus Servianus II
L. Licinius Sura II
103Imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus V
M'. Laberius Maximus II
104Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus II
M. Asinius Marcellus
105Ti. Julius Candidus Marius Celsus II
C. Antius A. Julius Quadratus II
106L. Ceionius Commodus
Sex. Vettulenus Civica Cerialis
107L. Licinius Sura III
Q. Sosius Senecio II
108Ap. Annius Trebonius Gallus
M. Atilius Metilius Bradua
109A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus II
P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso
110M. Peducaeus Priscinus
Ser. Cornelius Sciio Salvidienus Orfitus
111C. Calpurnius Piso
M. Vettius Bolanus
112Imp. Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus VI
T. Sextius Africanus
113L. Publilius Celsus II
C. Clodius Crispinus
114Q. Ninnius Hasta
P. Manilius Vopiscus Vicinillianus
115L. Vipstanus Messalla
M. Pedo Vergilianus
116L. Fundanius Lamia Aelianus
Sex. Carminius Vetus
117Q. Aquilius Niger
M. Rebilus Apronianus
118Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus II
Cn. Pedanius Fuscus Salinator
119Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus III
P. Dasumius Rusticus
120L. Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius Reginus II
T. Aurelius Fuluus Boionius Arrius Antoninus
121M. Annius Verus II
Cn. Arrius Augur
122M'. Acilius Aviola
Cornelius Pansa
123Q. Articuleius Paetinus
L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus
124M'. Acilius Glabrio
C. Bellicius Flaccus Torquatus Tebanianus
125M. Lollius Paullinus D. Valerius Asiaticus Saturninus II
L. Epidius Titius Aquilinus
126M. Annius Verus III
C. Eggius Ambibulus
127T. Atilius Rufus Titianus
M. Gavius Claudius Squilla Gallicanus
128L. Nonius Calpurnius Asprenas Torquatus II
M. Annius Libo
129P. Juuentius Celsus T. Aufidius Hoenius Seuerianus II
L. Neratius Marcellus II
130Q. Fabius Catullinus
M. Flavius Aper
131M. Servius Octavius Laenas Pontianus
M. Antonius Rufinus
132C. Junius Serius Augurinus
Trebius Sergianus
133M. Antonius Hiberus
P. Mummius Sisenna
134L. Julius Ursus Servianus III
T. Vibius Varus
135T. Tutilius Lupercus Pontianus
P. Calpurnius Atilianus Atticus Rufus
136L. Ceionius Commodous
Sex. Vettulenus Civica Pompeianus
137L. Aelius Caesar II
P. Coelius Balbinus Vibullius Pius
138Canus Junius Niger
C. Pomponius Camerinus
139Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius II
C. Bruttius Praesens L. Fulvius Rusticus II
140Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius III
M. Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar
141T. Hoenius Severus
M. Peducaeus Stloga Priscinus
142L. Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus
L. Statius Quadratus
143C. Bellicius Flaccus Torquatus
L. Vibullius Hipparchus Ti. Claudius Atticus Herodes
144L. Lollianus Avitus
T. Statilius Maximus
145Imp. Caesar T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius IV
M. Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar II
146Sex. Erucius Clarus II
Cn. Claudius Severus Arabianus
147C. Praestina Pacatus Messallinus
L. Annius Largus
148L. Octavius Cornelius P. Slavius Julianus Aemilianus
C. Bellicius Calpurnius Torquatus
149Ser. Cornelius Scipio L. Salvidienus Orfitus
Q. Pompeius Sosius Priscus
150M. Gavius Squilla Gallicanus
Sex. Carminius Vetus
151Sex. Quintilius Condianus
Sex. Quintilius Valerius Maximus
152M'. Acilius Glabrio Cn. Cornelius Severus
M. Valerius Homullus
153L. Fulvius C. Bruttius Praesens
A. Junius Rufinus
154L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus
T. Sextius Lateranus
155C. Julius Severus M. Junius Rufinus Sabinianus
156M. Ceionius Siluanus
C. Serius Augurinus
157M. Ceionius Civica Barbarus
M. Metilius Aquillius Regulus Nepos Volusius Torquatus Fronto
158Sex. Sulpicius Tertullus
Q. Tineius Sacerdos Clemens
159Plautius Quintillus Quintilius
M. Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus
160Appius Annius Atilius Bradua
T. Clodius Vibius Varus
161Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus III
Imp. Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus II
162Q. Junius Rusticus II
L. Titius Plautius Aquilinus
163M. Pontius Laelianus
A. Junius Pastor Caesennius Sospes
164M. Pompeius Macrinus
P. Juuentius Celsus
165M. Gavius Orfitus
L. Arrius Pudens
166Q. Servilius Pudens
L. Fufidius Pollio
167Imp. Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus III
M. Ummidius Quadratus
168L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus II
L. Sergius Paullus II
169Q. Pompeius Senecio Roscius Murena Coelius
M. Aquilius P. Coelius Apollinaris
170C. Erucius Clarus
M. Gavius Cornelius Cethegus
171T. Statilius Severus
L. Alfidius Herennianus
172Sex. Calpurnius Scipio Orfitus
Quintilius Maximus
173Cn. Claudius Severus II
Ti. Claudius Pompeianus II
174L. Aurelius Gallus
Q. Volusius Flaccus Cornelianus
175L. Calpurnius Piso
P. Salvius Julianus
176T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio II
M. Flavius Aper II
177Imp. Caesar L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus
M. Peducaeus Plautius Quintillus
178Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus
D. Velius Rufus Julianus
179Imp. Caesar L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus II
P. Martius Verus II
180L. Fulvius C. Bruttius Praesens II
Sex. Quintilius Condienus
181Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus III
L. Antistius Burrus
182M. Petronius Sura Mamertinus
Q. Tineius Rufus
183Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus IV
C. Aufidius Victorinus II
184L. Cossonius Eggius Marullus
Cn. Papirius Aelianus
185Maternus Ti. Claudius
M. Appius Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus
186Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus V
M'. Acilius Glabrio II
187L. Bruttius Quintius Crispinus
L. Roscius Aelianus Paculus
188P. Seius Fuscianus II
M. Servilius Silanus II
189Dulius Silanus
Q. Servilius Silanus
190Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus VI
M. Petronius Sura Septimianus
191Opilius Pedo Apronianus
M. Valerius Bradua Mauricus
192Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus VII
P. Helvius Pertinax II
193Q. Pompeius Sosius Falco
C. Julius Erucius Clarus Vibianus
194Imp. Caesar L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus II
Imp. Caesar D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus II
195P. Julius Scapula Tertullus Priscus
Q. Tineius Clemens
196C. Domitius Dexter II
L. Valerius Messalla Thrasea Priscus
197T. Sextius Lateranus
L. Cuspius Rufinus
198P. Martius Sergius Saturninus
L. Aurelius Gallus
199P. Cornelius Anullinus II
M. Aufidius Fronto
200Ti. Claudius Severus Proculus
C. Aufidius Victorinus
201L. Annius Fabianus
M. Nonius Arrius Mucianus
202Imp. Caesar L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus III
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus
203C. Fulvius Plautianus II
P. Septimius Geta II
204L. Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus II
M. Annius Fl. Libo
205Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus II
P. Septimius Geta Caesar
206M. Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio Albinus
L. Fulvius Gavius Numisius Petronius Aemilianus
207L. Annius Maximus
L. Septimius Aper
208Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus III
P. Septimius Geta Caesar II
209Pompeianus
Avitus
210M'. Acilius Faustinusa
Triarius Rufinus
211Terentius Gentianus
Bassus
212C. Julius Asper II
C. Julius Galerius Asper
213Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus IV
D. Caelius Calvinus Balbinus II
214L. Valerius Messalla Apollinaris
C. Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus
215Q. Maecius Laetus II
M. Munatius Sulla Cerialis
216P. Catius Sabinus II
P. Cornelius Anullinus
217C. Bruttius Praesenst
T. Messius Extricatus II
218Imp. Caesar M. Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus II
M. Oclantinius Adventus II
Suff. Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
219Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus II
Q. Tineius Sacerdos II
220Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus III
P. Valerius Comazon Eutychianus II
221C. Vettius Gratus Sabinianus
M. Fl. Vitellius Seleucus
222Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus
223L. Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus II
L. Roscius Aelianus Paculus Salvius Julianus
224Ap. Claudius Julianus II
C. Bruttius Crispinus
225Ti. Manilius Fuscus II
Ser. Calpurnius Domitius Dexter
226Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus II
C. Aufidius Marcellus II
227M. Nummius Senecio Albinus
M. Laelius Fulvius Maximus Aemilianus
228Q. Aiacius Modestus Crescentianus II
M. Pomponius Maecius Probus
229Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus III
Cassius Dio Cocceianus II
230L. Virius Agricolasex
Catius Clementinus Priscillianus
231Claudius Pompeianust
Fl. Sallustius Paelignianus
232L. Virius Lupus Julianus
L. Marius Maximus
233L. Valerius Maximus
Cn. Cornelius Paternus
234M. Clodius Pupienus Maximus II
M. Munatius Sulla Urbanus
235Cn. Claudius Severus
L. Ti. Claudius Aurelius Quintianus
236Imp. Caesar C. Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus
M. Pupienius Africanus
237L. Marius Perpetuus
L. Mummidius Felix Cornelianus
238C. Fulvius Pius
Pontius Proculus Pontianus
239Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus
M'. Acilius Aviola
240C. Octavius Ap. Suetrius Sabinus II
Seius Ragonius Venustus
241Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus II
Clodius Pompeianus
242C. Vettius Gratus Atticus Sabinianus
C. Asinius Lepidus Praetextatus
243L. Annius Arrianus
C. Ceruonius Papus
244Ti. Pollenius Armenius Peregrinus
Fulvius Aemilianus
245Imp. Caesar M. Julius Philippus Augustus I
C. Maesius Titianus
246C. Bruttius Praesens
C. Allius Albinus
247Imp. Caesar M. Julius Philippus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar M. Julius Severus Philippus Augustus I
248Imp. Caesar M. Julius Philippus Augustus III
Imp. Caesar M. Julius Severus Philippus Augustus II
249L. Fulvius Gavius Numisius Aemilianus II
L. Naevius Aquilinus
250Imp. Caesar C. Messius Q. Traianus Decius Augustus II
Vettius Gratus
251Imp. Caesar C. Messius Q. Traianus Decius Augustus III
Q. Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Caesar
252Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus Augustus
253Imp. Caesar C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus Augustus II
L. Valerius Claudius Poplicola Balbinus Maximus
254Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus I
255Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus III
Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus II
256L. Valerius Claudius Acilius Priscillianus Maximus II
M. Acilius Glabrio
257Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus III
258M. Nummius Tuscus
Mummius Bassus
259Nummius Aemilianus Dexter
Ti. Pomponius Bassus
260P. Cornelius Saecularis II
C. Junius Donatus II
261Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus IV
L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus
262Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus V
L. Nummius Fausianus
263M. Nummius Ceionius Albinus II
Dexter
264Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus VI
Saturninus
265P. Licinius Valerianus II
Lucillus
266Imp. Caesar P. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius Gallienus Augustus VII
Sabinillus
267Aspasius Paternus
Archesilaus
268Aspasius Paternus II
P. Licinius Egnatius Marinianus
269Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus
Paternus
270Fl. Antiochianus II
Virius Orfitus
271Imp. Caesar L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus I
Ti. Pomponius Bassus II
272T. Flavius Postumius Quietus
Junius Veldumnianus
273M. Claudius Tacitus
Julius Placidianus
274Imp. Caesar L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus II
Capitolinus
275Imp. Caesar L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus III
Marcellinus
276Imp. Caesar M. Claudius Tacitus Augustus II
Aemilianus II
277Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus I
Paulinus
278Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus II
Virius Lupus II
279Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus III
Nonius Paternus II
280L. Valerius Messalla
Gratus
281Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus IV
C. Junius Tiberianus
282Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Probus Augustus V
Victorinus
283Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus I
284Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus
285Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus III
T. Claudius M. Aurelius Aristobulus
Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus
286M. Junius Maximus II
Vettius Aquilinus
287Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus III
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus I
288Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus II
Pomponius Ianuarianus
289L. Ragonius Quintianus
M. Magrius Bassus
290Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus III
291C. Junius Tiberianus II
Cassius Dio
292Afranius Hannibalianus
Julius Asclepiodotus
293Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus V
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus IV
294C. Fl. Valerius Constantius Caesar I
C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar I
295Nummius Tuscus
C. Annius Anullinus
296Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VI
C. Fl. Valerius Constantius Caesar II
297Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus V
C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar II
298M. Junius Caesonius Nicomachus Anicius Faustus Paulinus II
Virius Gallus
299Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VII
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VI
300C. Fl. Valerius Constantius Caesar III
C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar III
301T. Fl. Postumius Titianus II
Virius Nepotianus
302C. Fl. Valerius Constantius Caesar IV
C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar IV
303Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VIII
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VII
304Imp. Caesar C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus IX
Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VIII
305C. Fl. Valerius Constantius Caesar V
C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar V
306Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantius Augustus VI
Imp. Caesar C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VI
307[Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus IX]
Fl. Valerius Constantinus Caesar
C. Valerius Galerius Maximinus Caesar
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Severus Augustus
308C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus X
Imp. Caesar C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VII
[Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus]
M. Valerius Romulus I
309[Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus]
M. Valerius Romulus II
Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus
310[Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus]
Tatius Andronicus Pompeius Probus
Pompeius Probus
311[Imp. Caesar C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VIII]
Imp. Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus II
312Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus II
[Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus IV]
313Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus III
Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus III
Imp. Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus III
314C. Caesonius Ceionius Rufus Volusianus II
Petronius Annianus
315Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus IV
316Antonius Caecina Sabinus
Vettius Rufinus
317Ouinius Gallicanus
Caesonius Bassus
318Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus V
Fl. Julius Valerius Crispus Caesar
319Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus V
Valerius Licinianus Licinius Caesar
320Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus VI
Fl. Claudius Constantinus Caesar
321West: Fl. Julius Valerius Crispus Caesar II
Fl. Claudius Constantinus Caesar II
East: Imp. Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus VI
Valerius Licinianus Licinius Caesar II
These are rival sets of Consuls, because of
disagreement between the Courts of Constantine and
Licinius; no more than two Consuls were ever
considered legitimate by anyone
322Petronius Probianus
Amnius Anicius Julianus
323Acilius Severus
Vettius Justus
324Fl. Julius Valerius Crispus Caesar III
Fl. Claudius Constantinus Caesar III
325Sex. Anicius Faustus Paulinus
Valerius Proculus
suff. P. Caeionius Julius Julianus
326Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus VII
Fl. Julius Constantius Caesar
327Fl. Constantius
Valerius Maximus
328Fl. Ianuarinus
Vettius Justus
329Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Constantinus Augustus VIII
Fl. Claudius Constantinus Caesar IV
330Fl. Gallicanus
Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus
331Julius Annius Bassus
Fl. Ablabius
332L. Papinius Fabius Pacatianus
Maecilius Hilarianus
333Fl. Julius Delmatius
Domitius Zenofilus
334Fl. Optatus
Amnius M'. Caesonius Nicomachus Anicius Paulinus
335Fl. Julius Constantius
Caeionius Rufius Albinus
336Virius Nepotianus
Tettius Facundus
337Fl. Felicianus
Fabius Titianus
338Fl. Ursus
Fl. Polemius
339Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus II
Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constans Augustus I
340Septimius Acindynus
L. Aradius Valerius Proculus
341Antonius Marcellinus
Petronius Probinus
342Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus III
Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constans Augustus II
343M. Maecius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus
Fl. Romulus
344Fl. Domitius Leontius
Fl. Bonosus (West until Apr/May)
Fl. Julius Sallustius (West after Apr/May)
345 Fl. Amantius
M. Nummius Albinus
346Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constans Augustus III
347Vulcacius Rufinus
Fl. Eusebius
348Fl. Philippus
Fl. Salia
349Ulpius Limenius
Aconius Catullinus
350 Fl. Sergius
Fl. Nigrinianus
351[Imp. Caesar Fl. Magnus Magnentius Augustus]
Gaiso (West)
Post consulatum Sergii et Nigriniani (East)
352 Magnus Decentius Caesar (West)
Paulus (West)
Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus V (East)
Fl. Claudius Constantius Caesar I(East)
353[Imp. Caesar Fl. Magnus Magnentius Augustus] (West)
Magnus Decentius Caesar II (West)
Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus VI (East)
Fl. Claudius Constantius Caesar II (East)
354Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus VII
Fl. Claudius Constantius Caesar III
355Fl. Arbitio
Q. Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus
356Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus VIII
Fl. Claudius Julianus Caesar I
357Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus IX
Fl. Claudius Julianus Caesar II
358Datianus
Naeratius Cerealis
359Fl. Eusebius
Fl. Hypatius
360Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Constantius Augustus X
Fl. Claudius Julianus Caesar III
361Fl. Taurus
Fl. Florentius
362Claudius Mamertinus
Fl. Nevitta
363Imp. Caesar Fl. Claudius Julianus Augustus IV
Fl. Sallustius
364Imp. Caesar Fl. Jovianus Augustus
Fl. Varronianus
365Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Augustus I
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valens Augustus I
366Fl. Gratianus
Dagalaifus
367Fl. Lupicinus
Fl. Jovinus
368Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Augustus II
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valens Augustus II
369Fl. Valentinianus Galates
Fl. Victor
370Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Augustus III
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valens Augustus III
371Imp. Caesar Fl. Gratianus Augustus II
Sex. Claudius Petronius Probus
372Domitius Modestus
Fl. Arinthaeus
373Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valens Augustus IV
374Imp. Caesar Fl. Gratianus Augustus III
Fl. Equitius
375Post consulatum Gratiani Augusti III et Equiti
376Imp. Caesar Fl. Valens Augustus V
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Junior Augustus
377Imp. Caesar Fl. Gratianus Augustus IV
Fl. Merobaudes
378Imp. Caesar Fl. Valens Augustus VI
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Junior Augustus II
379D. Magnus Ausonius
Q. Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius
380Imp. Caesar Fl. Gratianus Augustus V
Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus
381Fl. Syagrius
Fl. Eucherius
382Fl. Claudius Antonius
Fl. Afranius Syagrius
383Fl. Merobaudes II
Fl. Saturninus
384Fl. Richomeres
Fl. Clearchus
385Imp. Caesar Fl. Arcadius Augustus
Fl. Bauto
386Fl. Honorius
Fl. Euodius
387Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Junior Augustus III
Eutropius
388Imp. Caesar Fl. Magnus Maximus Augustus II (West)
Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus II (East)
Maternus Cynegius (East)
389Fl. Timasius
Fl. Promotus
390Imp. Caesar Fl. Valentinianus Junior Augustus IV
Fl. Neoterius
391Fl. Eutolmius Tatianus
Q. Aurelius Symmachus
392Imp. Caesar Fl. Arcadius Augustus II
Fl. Rufinus
393Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus II (East & West)
[Imp. Caesar Fl. Eugenius Augustus] (West)
Fl. Abundantius (East)
394 Virius Nicomachus Flavianus (West)
Imp. Caesar Fl. Arcadius Augustus III (East)
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus II (West)
395Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius
Anicius Probinus
396Imp. Caesar Fl. Arcadius Augustus IV
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus III
397Fl. Caesarius
Nonius Atticus Maximus
398Fl. Eutychianus
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus IV
399Eutropius
Fl. Mallius Theodorus
400Aurelianus
Fl. Stilicho
401Fl. Fravitta
Fl. Vincentius
402Imp. Caesar Fl. Arcadius Augustus V
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus V
403Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus I
Fl. Rumoridus
404Aristaenetus
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus VI
405Fl. Anthemius
Fl. Stilicho II
406Imp. Caesar Fl. Arcadius Augustus VI
Anicius Fl. Petronius Probus
407Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus II
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus VII
408 Fl. Philippus
Anicius Auchenius Bassus
409Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus III
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus VIII
[Imp. Caesar Fl. Claudius Constantinus Augustus]
410Tertullus (West, Rome)
Varanes (East)
411Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus IV
412Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus V
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus IX
413Fl. Lucius
Heraclianus
414Fl. Constans
Fl. Constantius
415Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus VI
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus X
416Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus VII
Fl. Junius Quartus Palladius
417Fl. Constantius II
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus XI
(both Western)
418Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus VIII
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus XII
419Fl. Monaxius
Fl. Plinta (both Eastern)
420Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus IX
Fl. Constantius III
421Fl. Eustathius
Fl. Agricola
422Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus X
Imp. Caesar Fl. Honorius Augustus XIII
423Fl. Asclepiodotus
Fl. Avitus Marinianus
424Fl. Castinus
Victor
425Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XI
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus
(both Eastern)
[Imp. Caesar Fl. Johannes Augustus, W usurper]
426Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XII
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus II
427Fl. Hierius
Fl. Ardabur (both Eastern)
428Fl. Taurus
Fl. Constantius Felix
429Florentius
Dionysius (both Eastern)
430Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XIII
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus III
431Fl. Antiochus
Fl. Anicius Bassus
432Fl. Valerius
Fl. Aëtius I
433Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XIV
Petronius Maximus
434Fl. Areobindus
Fl. Ardabur Aspar
435Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XV
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus IV
436Fl. Anthemius Isidorus Theophilus
Fl. Senator (both Eastern)
437Fl. Aëtius II
Fl. Sigisvultus (both Western)
438Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XVI
Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus
439Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XVII
Fl. Postumus Festus
440Fl. Anatolius
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus V
441Fl. Taurus Seleucus Cyrus
442Fl. Eudoxius
Fl. Dioscorus
443Petronius Maximus II
Fl. Paterius (both Western)
444Imp. Caesar Fl. Theodosius Augustus XVIII
Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus
445Fl. Nomus
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus VI
446Fl. Aëtius III
Q. Aurelius Symmachus (both Western)
447Fl. Ardabur Junior
Fl. Calepius
448Fl. Zeno
Fl. Rufius Praetextatus Postumianus
449Fl. Florentius Romanus Protogenes
Fl. Astyrius
450Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus VII
Gennadius Avienus (both Western)
451Imp. Caesar Fl. Marcianus Augustus VI
Valerius Faltonius Adelfius
452Fl. Sporacius
Fl. Bassus Herculanus
453Johannes Vincomalus
Fl. Venantius Rufius Opilio
454Fl. Aëtius IV
Fl. Studius (both Eastern)
455Procopius Anthemius
Imp. Caesar Fl. Placidius Valentinianus Augustus VIII
456Johannes (East)
Varanes (East)
Imp. Caesar Fl. Eparchius Avitus Augustus (West)
457Fl. Constantius
Fl. Rufus (both Eastern)
458Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Leo Augustus
Imp. Caesar Fl. Julius Valerianus Maiorianus Augustus
459Fl. Julius Patricius
Fl. Ricimer
460 Fl. Apollonius
Fl. Magnus
461Fl. Dagalaiphus
Fl. Severinus
462Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Leo Augustus II
Imp. Caesar Libius Severus Augustus
463Fl. Vivianus
Fl. Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius
464Fl. Rusticius
Fl. Anicius Olybrius (both Eastern)
465Fl. Basiliscus I
Fl. Herminericus
466[Tatianus]
Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Leo Augustus III
467Fl. Puseus
Fl. Johannes (both Eastern)
468Imp. Caesar Procopius Anthemius Augustus II
469Fl. Zeno I
Fl. Marcianus
470Fl. Jordanes
Fl. Messius Phoebus Severus
471Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Leo Augustus IV
Caelius Aconius Probianus
472Fl. Marcianus
Fl. Festus
473Imp. Caesar Fl. Valerius Leo Augustus V
474Imp. Caesar Fl. Leo Junior Augustus
475Imp. Caesar Fl. Zeno Augustus II
476Fl. Armatus
Fl. Basiliscus Augustus II (both Eastern)
End of Western Emperors
477Post consulatum Basilisci Augusti II et Armati
478Illus
479Imp. Caesar Fl. Zeno Augustus III
480Fl. Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius Junior
481Rufius Achilius Placidus
482Fl. Appalius Illus Trocundes (East)
Severinus Junior (West)
483Anicius Acilius Aginatius Faustus Junior
484Fl. Theodericus (East)
Decius Marius Venantius Basilius (West)
485Q. Aurelius Memmius Symmachus
486Fl. Longinus (East)
Caecina Mauortius Basilius Decius (West)
487Fl. Manlius Boethius (West)
488Claudius Julius Ecclesius Dynamius
Rufius Achilius Sividius (both Western)
489Eusebius I
Petronius Probinus
490Fl. Longinus II
Anicius Probus Faustus Junior
491Fl. Anicius Olybrius Junior
492Fl. Rufus
Imp. Caesar Fl. Anastasius Augustus I (both Eastern)
493Fl. Eusebius II
Faustus Albinus
494Fl. Turcius Rufius Apronianus Asterius
Fl. Praesidius (both Western)
495Fl. Viator (West)
496Fl. Paulus
497Imp. Caesar Fl. Anastasius Augustus II (East)
498Johannes Scytha (East)
Fl. Paulinus (West)
499Fl. Johannes Gibbus
Asclepio
500Fl. Patricius
Fl. Hypatius (both Eastern)
Western & Eastern Consuls
501Fl. Pompeius (West)
Fl. Avienus Junior (East)
502Fl. Probus (West)
Rufius Magnus Faustus Avienus Junior (East)
503Fl. Dexicrates (West)
Fl. Volusianus (East)
504Fl. Rufius Petronius Nicomachus Cethegus (East)
505Fl. Sabinianus (West)
Fl. Theodorus (East)
506Fl. Areobindus Dagalaifus Areobindus (West)
Fl. Ennodius Messala (East)
507Imp. Caesar Fl. Anastasius Augustus III (East)
Venantius Junior (West)
508 Fl. Celer (West)
Decius Marius Basilius Venantius Junior (East)
509Fl. Inportunus Junior (East)
510Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius Junior (West)
511Fl. Secundinus (West)
Arcadius Placidus Magnus Felix (East)
512Fl. Moschianus
Fl. Paulus (both Eastern)
513Fl. Taurus Clementinus Armonius Clementinus (West)
Fl. Probus (East)
514Fl. Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (West)
515Procopius Anthemius (West)
Fl. Florentius (East)
516Fl. Petrus
517Fl. Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius Anastasius (East)
Fl. Agapitus (West)
518Fl. Anastasius Paulus Probus Moschianus Probus Magnus (East)
519Imp. Caesar Fl. Justinus Augustus I (East)
Fl. Eutaricus Cilliga (West)
520Fl. Vitalianus (West)
Fl. Rusticius (East)
521Fl. Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus I (East)
Iobius Philippus Ymelcho Valerius (West)
522Fl. Symmachus
Fl. Boethius (both Western)
523Fl. Anicius Maximus
524Imp. Caesar Fl. Justinus Augustus II (East)
Venantius Opilio (West)
525Fl. Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus (West)
Fl. Amicius Probus Junior (East)
526Fl. Anicius Olybrius Junior (West)
527Vettius Agorius Basilius Mavortius
528Fl. Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus II (East)
529Fl. Decius Junior
530Fl. Lampadius
Fl. Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes (both Western)
531Post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis
532II post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis
533Imp. Caesar Fl. Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus III
534Imp. Caesar Fl. Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus IV (East)
Decius Theodorius Paulinus (West)
Last Western Consul
535Fl. Belisarius (East)
536Post consulatum Belisarii
537II post consulatum Belisarii
538Fl. Johannes Orientalis (East)
539Fl. Strategius Apion Strategius Apion (East)
540Fl. Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Justinus (East)
Some sources say that Justin was the last Consul
541Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius Junior (East)
"Consul," when used, part of Imperial Titles

From several sources I had heard that there were separate Consuls for Rome and for Constantinople after the foundation of the latter in 330. Apart from the list here, however, I have never seen what should be the corresponding list for Constantinople; and the Consuls listed here are often personages, or Emperors, from the Eastern Capital. My suspicion, therefore, was that there wasn't a separate list for Constantinople and that, often informally, the notion was that one Consul would be for the West (Rome), the other for the East (Constantinople). Recent lists, indeed, posted at Wikipedia have begun to distinguish Western from Eastern Consuls, especially after 500. This doesn't always look right, as when Boethius is identified as the Eastern Consul in 510 -- a man, who, as far as I know, only lived in Italy. When there is only one Consul in a year, it is hard to know if the designation, usually for the East, is correct.

The full story is covered in detail in Consuls of the Later Roman Empire, by Roger S. Bagnall, Alan Cameron, Seth R. Schwartz, and Klass A. Worp [The American Philological Association, the Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia, 1987]. There were in fact not separate Consuls for Constantinople, but in the 4th century the practice did emerge of the Western Emperor nominating one Consul and the Eastern Emperor the other. There were irregularities in this; and sometimes one Court or the other nominated both Consuls, for political or personal reasons that may now be lost. And an undoubtedly Western figure, like Aëtius, may be nominated by the Eastern Emperor. What is happening and why is often a matter now of uncertainty and debate, as is the process by which this became the custom. As problems began to plague the Western Empire, and then Odoacer and the Ostrogoths succeeded to rule in Italy, agreement between Constantinople and the Germans in Italy was fragile and a matter of negotiation. The Western Consulate in those years began to reflect the power of various aristocratic families in the City of Rome, whose support the Kings in Ravenna could cultivate by a continuation of the Consular institution. Also, with the loss of full, or any, Roman administration in the West, the process of even disseminating the names of the Consuls became slow and uncertain. Thus, even when Consuls were nominated, local officials might nevertheless use a "postconsulate," i.e. use the Consul of the previous year post consulatum, sometimes for two or three years. This also allowed unambiguous dating when Consuls might not be nominated at all. After a vacant year in 477 (with the end of the Western Emperors and the usurpation of Basiliscus in the East), we often only get one Consul, and sometimes none -- leaving many areas, or all, dependant on postconsulates.

Several Consuls are noteworthy. We see the Consulship of the historian Cassius Dio, a Greek from Bithynia, in 229. He is also said to have been Consul in 205 or 206 -- the Consulship of 229 is marked as his second -- but his name is not on the list, so he presumably was a suffectus -- although he is not given as such in the available lists, which could explain the uncertainty about the dates. Aspar is Consul in 434. He was an Alan Master of Soldiers who came close in Constantinople to the kingmaking powers of the Masters of Soldiers in the West -- before he was assassinated. His contemporary, the actual Master of Soldiers in the West, Aëtius, may be seen to enjoy multiple Consulships, including one in 454, the year he was personally stabbed to death by the Emperor Valentinian III. The Consul of 510, Boethius, and of 514, Cassiodorus, are significant literary figures of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy. Manlius Boethius, Consul of 487, was the father of the later Boethius; and both Consuls of 522 are Boethius's sons. This is a case where both Consuls are Western, as noted above.

Before the Internet, I was content to rely on the Chronology of the Ancient World, by E.J. Bickerman [Cornell University Press, 1968, 1982]. But Bickerman did not list any Consuls after 337, and I found some of his more general statements confusing:

From 534 in the West and after 541 in the East, only the emperors held the consulship. [p.69]

This confirmed the nature of the division between Western and Eastern Consuls, without explaining it or accounting for the history or irregularities of it. When we see Belisarius, Justinian's great general, as Consul for 535, even as he was actually in Italy at the time, taking Rome, the institution of the Western Consulate has now lapsed -- both because the legitimacy of the Ostrogothic government is denied by Justinian and because the Roman aristocracy, their status and wealth shaken by the war, are no longer in a position to sustain the financial requirements of the Consulship. When Justinian begin dating in Regal Years in 537, the very mechanism of dating by Consuls received a death-blow. Contrary to Bickerman's statement, no one really "held the consulship" after 541 in its ancient meaning of office, powers, and obligations.

Cases of the full traditional Roman tria nomina names, and more, seem to persist longer among the Consuls than they do with the Emperors. Consuls in Rome are often going to be Roman aristocrats, many of whom were pagans, or recently so, and retaining Roman customs longer. Even Christian Emperors, like Justin and Justinian, here at least have a "Flavius" praenômen -- although this now looks like a pro forma name adopted by anyone, a device that goes back to Constantine (as part of his claims for hereditary legitimacy). Full names are often not used or given in standard Byzantine histories.

This list derived first of all from Bickerman, then from several websites, all of which were the first hits for "Late Roman Consuls" at Google, and now with some additional data from Bagnall et al. -- who are presumably behind much of the information on the Internet.

Exit this page by closing its window. There are no off-page links here.

Copyright (c) 2005, 2010, 2013, 2016 Kelley L. Ross
Ph.D. All Rights Reserved