Patriarchs of Aquileia,
Grado, and Venice


The principal city of the Roman province of Venetia et Histria was Aquileia. As the Empire Christianized, the city rated a Bishop and then an Archbishop. In the troubles of the Late Empire, however, Aquileia was hit particularly hard. It was sacked by the Visigoths in 403, by the Huns in 452, and then by the Lombards in 659. Each time, local inhabitants fled to safety on islands in the nearby swampy lagoons, or to barrier and offshore islands. With the arrival of the Lombards, this became a permanent recourse for many. The name Venetia itself eventually became transfered to the city founded on Rialto Island -- Venice, Venezia.

Nevertheless, Aquileia survived. The Archbishop Paulinus even began to style himself a Patriarch, after disagreements with the findings of the Fifth Ecumenical Council in 553 and a schism with Rome. The refuge that Paulinus took on the island of Grado, just offshore from Aquileia, however, introduced another kind of division. When doctrinal or political disagreements led to rival Patriarchs, the two sides tended to establish themselves at Aquileia and Grado. By 630 this became a permanent division, with a "Roman" Patriarch at Grado ("New Aquileia") and a "Lombard" Patriarch at (Old) Aquileia. On the map we see the subsequent development, that the Patriarchate of Grado was relocated to Venice and then transformed into the Patriarchate of Venice. By 1500, Aquileia had little surviving authority; but, as we see from the map [Historical Atlas of the World, Barnes & Noble, 1970, 1972, p.48], its jurisdiction was still considerably larger than that of Venice, which nevertheless had been given primacy.

Bishops of Aquileia
Hilarius of Panoniac.276-285
Chrysogonus Ic.286-295
Chrysogonus IIc.295-308
Theodorec.308-319
Agapitusc.319-332
Benedictusc.332-?
Fortunatianusc.343-355
Archbishops of Aquileia, 355-557
Valerianus369-388
Chromatius388-407
Goths sack Aquileia, 403
Augustinus407-434
Adelphus434-442
Maximus I442-444
Januarius444-447
Secundus451-452
Huns sack Aquileia, 452
Nicetas454-485
Marcellianus448-500
Marcellinus500-513
Stephanus I515-?
Macedonius539-?
Ecumentical Council V, Constantinople II, 553;
Patriarchs of Aquileia, 557-1752
Paulinus I557-569
Lombards sack Aquileia, 569Paulinus flees to Grado, 569
Probinus569-570
Elia571-586
Severus586-606
CandidianusIoannes ICounter-Patriarch, 606
606-612
Reconciliation with Rome, 606
Epiphaniusin Grado, 612-613
Ciprianusin Grado, 613-627Marcianusin Aquileia, 623-628
AquileiaGrado
Fortunatus628-663Primogenius630-648
Maximus II649
Felix of Aquileia649-?
Ioannes II663-?Stephanus II670-?
Agathon679-680 or 679-?
Ioannes III680-?Christophoros682-711/717
Petrus I698-700 Donatus717-724/725
Serenus711-723 Antoninus725-747
Calixtus726-734Emilianus747-755
vacant or unknown, 734-772Vitalianus755-767
Siguald772-776Ioannes IV of Trieste767-802
Paulinus II776-802
Ursus I802-811Fortunatus of Trieste802/3-820,
d.825
Manentius811-833Ioannes V820- 825
Andreas834-844Venerius Trasmondo825-851/2
Venantius850-?Victor I852-858
Theutmar855-?Vitalis I Parteciaco (Partecipazio)858-?
Lupus I855-?
Valpert875-899Petrus I Marturio875-877/8
Fredericus I901-922Viktor II Parteciaco878-?
Georgius?
Dominicus I Tribuno904-?
Leo of Aquileia922-927Dominicus II919
Ursus II928-931Vitalis II?
aurentius Mastalico?
Lupus II932-944Marinus Contarini933-944?
Engelfred944-963Bonus Blancanico960
Rodoald963-984Vitalis III Barbolani?
Ioannes IV of Ravena984-1017Vitalis IV Candiano976-1017
Poppo/ Wolfgang1019-1045Orso Orseolo of Venice1018-1026,
1030-1049
Eberhard1045-1049Vacant, 1026-1030
Gotebald1049-1063Dominicus III Bulzanoc.1050
Dominicus IV Marango1050?- ?
Named by Pope Metropolitan of Venetia & Istria, 1053
Ravengerius1063-1068
Sigeard of Beilstein1068-1077Dominicus V Cerbano 1074-1077
Henry of Aquileia1077-1084Ioannes VI Saponario?
Frederick II of Moravia1084-1085Petrus II Badoer da Noale1092-1105
Ulrich I of Eppenstein1086-1121Patriarchs reside in Venice, 1105
Giovanni VII Gradenigo (Ioannes Gradonico)1105-1108, 1112-1129
Gerard I1122-1128Vacant, 1108-1112
Pilgrim I of Ortenbourg1130-1161Enrico (Henricus) Dandolo1129 - 1182
Ulrich II of Treven1161-1181
Gottfried1182-1194Giovanni VIII Segnale (Ioannes Signolo)1182 - 1201
Pilgrim II1195-1204Benedetto Faletro (Benedictus Falier)1201 - 1207
Wolgfar of Leibrechtskirchen1204-1218Angelo (Angelus) Barozzi1211 - 1238
Berthold of Meran1218-1251Leonardo (Leonardus) Querini1238 - 1244
Gregorio of Montelongo1251-1269Lorenzo (Laurentius) 1244 - 1255
Jacopo Belligno1255-1255
Philipp I of Carinthia1269-1273Angelo Maltraverso, O.P.1255 - 1272
Raimondo of Torre1273-1299Giovanni IX of Ancona 1272 - 1279
Guido1279 - 1289
Pietro II Gerra1299-1301Lorenzo of Parma 1289 - 1295
Ottobuono of Razzi1302-1315Egidio (Giles) of Ferrara, O.P.1296-1311
Latin Patriarch of Alexandria
Angelo of Camerino, O.S.A.1311 - 1313
Paolo de Pilastris, O.P.1314-1316
Gaston of Torre1316-1318Marco de Vinea1316-1318
Paganus of Torre1319-1332Domenico1318-1332
Bertram of St. Genesius1334-1350Dino di Radicofani1332-1337
Nicolas of Luxemburg1350-1358Andrea Dotto1337-?
Ludovicus I of Torre1359-1365Fortanier de Vassal, O.F.M. (Fortanerius Vassalli)1351-1361
Marquard of Randelle1365-1381Orso Dolfin1361-1367
Francesco Querini1367-1372
Tommaso da Frignano, O.F.M.1372-1381
Philippe II of Alençon1381-1387Urbano da Frignanoc.1383-1385
Jan V Sobieslaw of Moravia1387-1394Pietro Amely di Brunac, O.S.A.1387-1400
Antonio I Gaetani1394-1402Pietro Cocco1400-1406
Giovanni Zambotti1406-1408
Francesco Lando1408-1409
Antonio II Panciera1402-1412Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
Antonio III of PonteCounter-
Partriarch, 1409-1412; 1412-1418
Giovanni Dolfin, O.F.M.1409-1427
Ludwig II of Teck1412-1439Biagio Molin1427-1434
Ludovicus III Scarampi-Mezzarota1439-1465Marco Condulmer1438-1444
Domenico Michiel1445-1451

Bishops of Olivolo
Obelerius775-
Christopher I Damiata797-810, 813-?
Christopher II810-813
Orso I Parteciacus825-
Maurice?
Domenicus I?
John?-876, excommunicated
Lorenzo I880-909
Domenico II909-?
Domenico III?
Peter I Tribunus929-938
Orso II938-945
Domenico IV Talonicus945-955
Peter II Marturio955-963
George963-966
Marino Cassianico966-992
Domenico V Gradenigo992-1026
Domenico VI Gradenigo1026-1044
Domenico VII Contarini1044-1074
Bishops of Castello
Henry Contarini1074-1108
Vitale I Michiel1108-1120
Bonifacio Falier1120-1133
John I Polani1133-1164
Vitale II Michiel1164-1182
Philip Casolo1182-1184
Mark I Nicolai1184-1225
Mark II Michiel1225-1135
Peter III Pino1235-1255
Walter Agnusdei1255-1258
Thomas I Arimondo1258-1260
Thomas II Franco1260-1274
Bartolomew I Querini1274-1292
Simeon Moro1292-1293
Bartholomew II Querini1293-1303
Ramberto Polo1303-1311
Galasso Albertini1311
Giacomo Albertini1311-1329
Angelo I Dolfin1329-1336
Nicholas Morosini1336-1367
Paul Foscari1367-1375
John II1375-1378, deposed
Nicholas II Morosini1379
Angelo II Correr1379-1390
Pope Gregory XII, 1406-1415 d.1417
John III Loredan1390
Francis I Falier1390-1392
Leonard Dolfin1392-1401
Francis II Bembo1401-1417
Mark III Lando1417-1426
Peter IV Donato1426-1428
Francis III Malipiero1428-1433
For a long time Aquileia remained an important city and a regional power. The Patriarchs even became secular rulers of the County of Fruili and the March of Carniola in 1077, and of the March of Istria in 1209. However, the Popes began to favor Grado, whose Patriarch was named Metropolitan of Venetia & Istria in 1053. By then, the Patriarchs of Grado had begun to reside at Venice, where they made their permanent seat in 1105. Aquileia went into decline. Carniola and Istria passed to Austria (1335 and 1382, respectively), and all the lands of the Patriarch of Aquileia came under the control of Venice on 7 July 1420.

Meanwhile, Venice had developed its own eccelesiastical jurisdiction. In 774, Pope Adrian I and the Patriarch of Grado John IV authorized an episcopal see on the island of Olivolo (Isola d'Olivolo, subsequently San Pietro di Castello or just Castello) with jurisdiction over the islands of Gemini, Rialto, Luprio and Dorsoduro. At the same time, the Bishops of Padua, the original episcopal authorites over the area of Venice, had been taking refuge at need on the island of Metamaucus, which became an alterantive seat for the see. In 812 this was moved to Venice. In 1074, the Bishop of Olivolo began to be styled the Bishop of Castello. Finally, in 1451 the Patriarchate of Grado was combined with the Bishopric of Costello and reestablished as a new Patriarchate of Venice itself.

Although we see from the map above that the authority of the Patriarchate of Aquileia was still extensive around 1500, the ambition of Venice led in 1752 to the dissolution of the Patriarchate and the division of its authority between the Archbishop of Gorizia (Görz) and the Archbishop of Udine. Today -- as Aquileia has shrunk to a small and forgotten town on the way to Grado -- Gorizia, Udine, and Trieste are the principal cities in the area. It is thus noteworthy that the decline of Aquileia was not an effect of the Dark Ages, as I long thought, but actually of the long development of local politics in the later Middle Ages and afterwards.

Venice survives as one of the "minor Patriarchates" within the Western, Catholic Church. The Patriarchs have become particularly important in the Catholic Church, with three of them elected Popes in the 20th century. With the strange history of Venice, itself, poised between Francia and Romania, it is fitting that its Church should survive with an anomalously elevated dignity. Other "minor Patriarchates" include Lisbon and the "Patriarch of the East Indies" at Goa, in India. These may be contasted with the autonomous or "autocephalous" Patriarchates of the Eastern Churches, like Constantinople, Jerusalem, Bulgaria, etc.

These lists were originally from Wikipedia and http://www.gcatholic.com/ hierarchy/patriarchs-venice.htm, the Giga Catholic Information. At first, I found the lists of Patriarchs of Venice to be incomplete. Now they seem to have been filled in. However, the list of Patriarchs of Grado from 670 to 1451 was mostly empty for a long time. Now, Leon Pereira, O.P., has enabled me to fill it in with searches he did in German and Italian.

The decline and then eclipse of Aquileia and Grado is a significant feature of the history of Northern Italy, and it seems to be rarely told. I wonder to what extent this was the result of a deliberate effort by Venice to magnify its own history at the expense of the others. There is no doubt about the importance and then predominance, politically and culturally, of Venice. Yet before the 12th cenutury, it looks like Aquileia and Grado were still rival centers of power that at the time might not have looked all that inferior. Aquileia certainly had the most impressive mainland possessions, as well as the largest jurisdiction.

I suspect that the rapid rise in the power of Venice was the result of the Crusades, and of the wealth that began to accumulate in the City as the result of trade with Constantinople and with Outremer, and from fleecing the Crusaders -- who generally, contrary to myth, did not become wealthy by looting the East. Such looting as there was, which at times could be considerable, the proceeds seem to have ended up in the hands of the Venetians (and other Italian trading cities). Aquileia and Grado had no such sources of wealth. In short order, the Patriarch of Grado resided in Venice (1105), and eventually his identity and station would be absorbed by the local Bishops of Castello. In all this, we have another important lesson in political ecomony. Aquileia's landed possessions availed it not. Venice, like Athens in her day, and then the Netherlands, Britain, and America later, exploded into a dominant commercial power by conjuring wealth out of the power of trade and industrial production. The restricted area, indeed, of Venice meant that it could not keep up when greater powers, initially meaning Valois France, began to compete in the same economic register.

AquileiaPatriarchate of Grado and Bishopric of Castello become Patriarchate of Venice
Marco I Barco1465-1491St. Lawrence Justinian, Lorenzo GiustinianiBishop of Castello, 1433-1451
Patriarch of Venice, 1451-1455
Maffio Contarini1456-1460
Andrea Bondimerio1460-1464
Gregorio Correr1464
Giovanni Barozzi1465-1466
Ermolaio I Barbaro1491-1493Maffeo Gherardi or Girardi1466-1492
Niccolo II Donati1493-1497Tomaso Dona1492-1504
Domenico Grimani1498-1517Antonio Soriano1504-1508
Alvise Contarini1508
Antonio Contarini1508-1524
Marino Grimani1517-1529, 1533-1545Geronimo Quirni1524-1554
Marco II Grimani1529-1533
Giovanni VI Grimani1545-1550, 1585-1593PierFrancesco Contarini1554-1555
Daniel I Barbaro1550-1574Vincenzo Diedo1556-1559
Aloisio Giustiniani1574-1585Giovanni Trevisano1560-1590
Francesco Barbaro1593-1616Lorenzo Priuli1591-1600
Matteo Zane1600-1605
Francesco Vendramin1608-1616
Ermolaio II Barbaro1616-1622Giovanni Tiepolo1619-1631
Antonio IV Grimani1622-1628
Agostino Gradenigo1628-1629Federico Baldissera Bartolomeo Cardinal Cornaro1631-1644
Marco III Gradenigo1629-1656GianFrancesco Morosini1644-1678
Hieronimo Gradenigo1656-1658Alvise Sagredo1678-1688
Giovanni VII Dolfino1658-1699Gianalberto Badoaro1688-1714
Dionisio Dolfino1699-1734Piero Barbarigo1706-1725
Marco Gradenigo1725-1734
Daniel II Dolfino1734-1751Francesco Antonio Correr1734-1741
Archbishop of Udine, 1752-1762Aloysius Foscari1741-1758
See divided between Archbishop of Udine & Archbishop of Gorizia, 1752Giovanni Bragadin1758-1775
Patriarchs of Venice
Fridericus Maria Giovanelli1776–1800
Ludovico Flangini Giovanelli1801–1804
Nicolaus Xaverius Gamboni1807–1808
Francesco Milesi1816–1819
Giovanni Ladislaus Pryker, O. Cist.1820-1826
Giacomo Cardinal Monico1827-1851
Angelo Ramazzotti1858-1861
Giuseppe Cardinal Trevisanato1862-1877
Domenico Cardinal Agostini1877-1891
Guiseppe Melchiorre Cardinal Sarto1896-1903
Pope Pius X,
1903-1914
Aristide Cardinal Cavallari1904-1914
Pietro Cardinal La Fontaine1915-1935
Adeodato Giovanni Cardinal Piazza1936-1948
Carlo Agostini1949-1952
Angelo Giuseppe Cardinal Roncalli1953-1958
Pope John XXIII,
1958-1963
Giovanni Cardinal Urbani1958-1969
Albino Cardinal Luciani1970-1978
Pope John Paul I,
1978
Marco Cardinal Cé1979-2002
Angelo Cardinal Scola2002-present

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Copyright (c) 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved


Bishops & Archbishops of Goa, Patriarchs of the East Indies; Patriarchs of the West Indies; & Patriarchs of Lisbon


Aquileia, Grado, and Venice are among the "Minor Patriarchates" subject to the Latin Church of Rome. To the long and complex history of those places, we can add two more suriving Minor Patriachates, of Lisbon and of "the East Indies." Both of these appear to be a function of the colonial Empire of Portugal. Goa was the seat of the Portuguese domain in India, which is why one finds people from India who are Catholics with Portuguese names. It was Lisbon, however, that was first upgraded to a Patriarchate, in 1716. This certainly was in recognition of the extent of the Portuguese colonial Empire, which stretched from Brazil, to Africa, to India, and Macao. Originally a similar provision was made for the Spanish colonial Empire, with a title created for the "Patriarch of the West Indies." However, this title was purely honorary, its holders had no jurisdiction to go with the title, and they remained in Spain. There were periods when the title lapsed, and no particular reason to revive it. In finally lapsed altogether in 1963.

While a Bishop was installed in Goa in 1533 and an Archbishop in 1560, it took a while for Goa to seem sufficiently important to warrant Patriarchal status. This did not come until 1886, quite late in the colonial Era, and long after Portugal was a significant power in India. As the Patriarch of "the East Indies," the idea was apparently that the reach of Goa would extend all the way to Indonesia, where Timor was a Portuguese possession, Vietnam, with a significant Catholic population under the French, and China. Although seized by India in 1961, Macao remains the center of Indian Catholicism.

Bishops of Goa
Francisco de Melo1533
João Afonso de Albuquerque1538-1553
Vacant, 1553-1560
Archbishops of Goa
Gaspar de Leão Pereira1560-1567, 1574-1576
Jorge Temudo1568-1571
Henrique de Távora e Brito1578-1581
João Vicente da Fonseca1582-1587
Mateus de Medina1588-1592
Aleixo de Menezes1595-1609
Cristóvão de Sá e Lisboa1613-1622
Sebastião de S. Pedro1625-1629
Manuel Teles de Brito1633
Francisco dos Mártires1636-1652
Vacant, 1652-1672
Cristóvão da Silveira1671-1673
António Brandão1675-1678
Manuel de Sousa e Menezes1681-1684
Alberto da Silva1685-1688
Agostinho da Anunciação1691-1713
Sebastião de Andrade Pessanha1716-1720
Inácio de Santa Teresa1721-1740
Eugénio de Trigueiros1740-1741
Lourenço de Santa Maria e Melo1741-1750
António Taveira da Neiva Brum e Silveira, OSJ1750-1773
Francisco da Assunção e Brito1774-1783
Manuel de Santa Catarina1784-1812
Manuel de S. Galdino Rif.1812-1831
José Maria da Silva Torres1844-1849
João Crisóstomo de Amorim Pessoa1862-1874
Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos1875-1879
António Sebastião Valente1882-1886
Patriarchs of the East Indies
António Sebastião Valente1886-1908
Mateus de Oliveira Xavier1909-1929
Teotónio Emanuel Ribeiro Vieira de Castro1929-1940
José da Costa Nunes1940-1953
José Vieira Alvernaz1953-1975
Raul Nicolau Gonçalves1978-2004
Filipe Neri Ferrão2004-Present
Patriarchs of the West Indies
Antonio de RojasArchbishop of Granada
1524-1530
Esteban Gabriel Merino1530-1535
Fernando Niño de Guevara1546-1552
Pedro Moya de ContrerasArchbishop of Mexico City
1592
Juan Guzmán1602–1605
Juan Bautista Acevedo Muñoz1606–1608
Pedro Manso1608–1609
Diego Guzmán de Haros1616–1631
Andrés Pacheco1625–1626
Antonio Manrique de Guzmán1670
Pedro Portocarrero y Guzmán1691–1708
Carlos Borja Centellas y Ponce de León1708–1733
Álvaro Eugenio de Mendoza Caamaño y Sotomayor1734–1761
Tomás Iglesias Bárcones1850–1874
José Moreno y Mazón1881–1885
Ciriaco María Sancha Hervás1898–1909
Jaime Cardona Tur1920–1923
Julián de Diego García Alcolea1923–1925
Francisco Muñoz Izquierdo1925–1930
Ramón Pérez y Rodríguez1930–1933
Leopoldo Eijo y Garay1946–1963
Patriarchs of Libson
Tomás de Almeida1716-1754
José I, Manoel da Câmara1754-1758
Francisco I de Saldanha da Gama1758-1776
Fernando de Sousa da Silva1779-1786
José II, Francisco Miguel António de Mendonça1786-1818
Carlos da Cunha e Menezes1819-1825
Patrício da Silva1826-1840
Francisco II de São Luís (Francisco Justiniano) Saraiva1840-1845
Guilherme Henriques de Carvalho1845-1857
Manuel I, Bento Rodrigues da Silva1858-1869
Inácio do Nascimento de Morais Cardoso1871-1883
José III Sebastião de Almeida Neto1883-1907
António I Mendes Belo1907-1929
Manuel II Gonçalves Cerejeira1929-1971
António II Ribeiro1971-1998
José IV da Cruz Policarpo1998-Present

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