All Living Things,
in Seven Kingdoms

Note:

This page contains an image that some may regard as offensive or inappropriate. It is included because it is (1) funny, (2) apt, (3) addresses a feature of the human condition, namely that we belong to the natural system of the animals, and of the mammals in particular, and (4) is aesthetically appealing. People who find this objectionable may wish to read about decadence instead. Otherwise, see the note for Mammalia in the example classification for Homo sapiens below.

The following list covers, as far as I can determine, every living thing, not always down to much detail, of course. This is an idiosyncratic and likely a dated treatment. Idiosyncratic mainly because of the system of Superkingdoms and Kingdoms, which are novel. Dated because my sources are getting a little old. My first exposure to the big picture of life was in The Wellsprings of Life by the late and beloved Isaac Asimov [Signet Science Library, 1960].
Superkingdom Progenotes*.....first cells
Superkingdom Archaebacteriae
   Kingdom Protomonera.......archaic bacteria
Superkingdom Eubacteria
   Kingdom Monera............bacteria
Superkingdom Urkaryotes*
Superkingdom Eukaryotes......cells with nuclei
   Kingdom Protista..........protozoans
   Kingdom Myxomycophyta.....slime molds
   Kingdom Plantae............plants
   Kingdom Fungi..............fungi
   Kingdom Animalia...........animals
Another favorite old book was Evolution of the Vertebrates by Edwin H. Colbert [John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1955, 1969]. These now may be too out of date, but the source I have used the most here is Five Kingdoms, An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth by Lynn Margulis and Karlene V. Schwartz [W.H. Freeman and Company, 1982]. I cannot say that any of this is the result of an extensive search of the literature, let alone the most recent literature. I notice what comes my way. The purpose here is to give an impression of the variety of life, in line with the philosophical purpose of The Proceedings of the Friesian School, with some issues that are of interest to me. Suggestions are welcome.

The five Kingdoms of Margulis and Schwartz are Monera, Protoctista (instead of Protista), Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia. The source of the "seven Kingdoms" idea was a Scientific American article on the "archaebacteria," anaerobic and other peculiar bacteria that are like those that preexisted the oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere [C. R. Woese, "Archaebacteria," Scientific American, June 1981, pp.98-122]. In a genealogy of life, these are importantly different from later bacteria. They include the very unique chemosynthesizing bacteria that make an abundance of life possible at volcanic vents, "smokers," on mid-ocean ridges. These sites and their fauna were entirely unknown until the late 1970's and open the prospect that life may have begun in the high temperatures and chemical rich environments of such places. I have just seen mention (late 2002, on one of these science shows on the Discovery Channel or Science Channel) that a fundamental division of life into the archaic bacteria, regular bacteria, and everything else is now widely accepted.

I now have a new book on all this, The Third Domain, the Untold Story of Archaea and the Future of Biotechnology, by Tim Friend [Joseph Henry Press, Washington, 2007]. The chart at left is featured in Friend's book [p.11] with a division based on DNA studies. I have added color to highlight the differences, with the assumption that it is Archaebacteria at the "Origin," since they were necessarily anaerobic in an early atmosphere of little oxygen. [note]

The idea of the three living Superkingdoms that I have used here is intended to represent the new understanding of the three large divisions of life, with two extinct Superkingdoms for transitional forms that now no longer exist. The Superkingdoms are thus based on the stages in the evolution of structure of the cell. Eukaryotic cells not only contain distinct nuclei but have organelles, small bodies like mitochondria and chloroplasts. Since such organelles can contain their own genetic material, they may well have originated as separate organisms that came to live as symbiotes in host cells. Instead of "Superkingdoms," it has already been suggested that the three living highest divisions of life be called "Domains." Since "superkingdom" is not otherwise used, and I have added extinct categories, I would prefer "Superkingdom" over "Domain," but we shall see what catches on or is formally adopted.

It also occurred in the Scientific American article that slime molds were rather different from what might have been associated with them earlier, the fungi or protista -- Margulis and Schwartz note that such separate classification can occur but don't themselves give slime molds a separate Kingdom. With the new genetic studies, as displayed in Friend's book, a number of branches of life appear to be on about equal footing with slime molds, plants, animals, and fungi. This could result in a great multiplication of Kingdoms, with six divisions instead of one for the Protista just within the Eukaryotes. The following diagram from Friend's book [p.63] is more clearly labelled and does not leave unidentified branches as in the first diagram. For the moment, I will resist the tempation to multiply the Kingdoms further -- holding at seven with only two added to Margulis and Schwartz for the Archaebacteria (preferentially "Archaea" in recent usage) and slime molds. If organelles originate as symbiotes within the Eukaryotes, it is always possible that some of them were from the Eubacteria, which complicates a simple branching tree of life. I have not yet attempted to adjust the main table below in light of the new information. It still reflects what I gathered from the earlier sources.

The basic elements of the system of classification are in bold text below:  Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and species. The elaboration of this into so many intermediate categories now has progressed very far. The following table illustrates the levels of classification for human beings (Homo sapiens). I have modified this table in light of a recent article in Science News [March 29, 2003] that there has been a division introduced for the Primates since the work in other sources. Tarsiers have now been removed from the Prosimians and grouped with monkeys and apes. The division between this group (the Haplorhines) and the rest of the Primates (the Strepsirrhines) has even been dated, with DNA techniques, to between 80 and 90 million years ago. This puts the groups in the range of Suborders. So I have introduced them at that level, bumping the previous Suborders and Infraorders down one step. This could be conveniently done, since the Parvorder level not had previously been used. I have also seen in a National Geographic Magazine article on the mammals [April 2003] that recent DNA studies have radically regrouped the divisions of placential mammals [pp.14-15]. We get four broad groups, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchontoglires. These groups match up with the way in which the Jurassic supercontinent, Pangaea, broke up (or reconnected, between Eurasia and Africa) over millions of years, with the groups corresponding, respectively, to Africa, South America, Eurasia and North American (i.e. Laurasia), and Eurasia and Africa. As it happens these divisions can easily be incorporated as Superorders. Previously, I had only used one Superorder (Placentalia) under the Infraclass Eutheria, but this was not logically meaningful, since it was coextensive. The Eutheria were already the placentials. Now this gives us more interesting distinctions. I cannot know from the National Geographic information where some Orders, especially extinct ones, would belong, so I have simply left them under Laurasiatheria, which is the largest group.

Superkingdom Eukaryotes
   Kingdom Animalia
      Subkingdom Metazoa
         Infrakingdom Coelomata
            Superphylum Deuterostomia, 750-1250 My
               Phylum Chordata
                  Subphylum Vertebrata
                     Superclass Tetrapoda
                        Class Mammalia [note]
                           Subclass Theria
                              Infraclass Eutheria
                                 Superorder Euarchontoglires
                                    Order Primates, 90-100 My
                                       Suborder Haplorhines, 80-90 My
                                          Infraorder Anthropoidea, 70-80 My
                                             Parvorder Catarrhini, 60-70 My
                                                Superfamily Hominoidea, 50-60 My
                                                   Family Hominidae, 40-50 My
                                                      Subfamily Anthropinae, 30-40 My
                                                         Tribe (none), 20-30 My
                                                            Genus Homo
                                                               species sapiens
                                                                  variety sapiens

The levels of "parvorder" and "tribe" originally only occurred in one place in the following table, under the Order Passeriformes, perching birds -- though the parvorder is now also used here, as just explained, for the Primates. The classification for these birds is based on another article in Scientific American, which distinguished between the Corvida and the Passerida. The most interesting feature was that the Corvida, ultimately including crows (Genus Corvus), evolved in Australia and, unlike other native Australian life forms, was able to then spread around the world. The use of the "parvorder" and "tribe" levels also went along with an estimation, which is given in the table above, of the time elapsed since separation of the genealogy at that level. With genetic analysis of DNA, this is now a promising means of determining relationships between all life forms and the age of various divisions. If the purpose of the introduction of parvorder and tribe was to allow a steady gradient in time among the level of classification, then perhaps living genera separate at 10-20 million years ago, and species at up to 10 million years ago. It is independently estimated that a species lasts about 5 million years, so that is in the right order of magnitude.

Speaking of the birds, Aves is given here as a subclass rather than a class, as usual, based on the idea that birds are dinosaurs, and that dinosaurs should no longer be classified as reptiles. The classification here thus uses Class Endosauropsida for both dinosaurs and birds, borrowing the term from The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs, by Adrian J. Desmond [Warner Books, 1975, 1977], one of the first books I saw with extensive discussion and argument for the warm blooded nature of dinosaurs (and Thecondonts, which here are still left with the reptiles). (Any category followed by an asterisk, "*," by the way, is extinct.) Later, I would say that the best book that turned up was The Dinosaur Heresies by practicing paleontologist Robert T. Bakker [William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1986] -- a bit of a Wild Child in paleontology, always sporting a bushy beard and battered cowboy hat.

One of the great features of Bakker's book is his explanation of the evidence for the large sauropod dinosaurs being able to raise up on their hind legs. As with Brontosaurus at right (which Bakker, like Stephen J. Gould, continues to call "Brontosaurus," despite the perplexing obscurantist rage for renaming it), it is easy to see the long processes out of the top of the vertebrae [pp.191-192]. The only purpose for such things is muscle attachments. Their length indicates the leverage that the muscles need to function, and the only reasonable function is to raise up the body.

While the idea of these dinosaurs rearing up has become general knowledge, the evidence for it has not. This is clear in the movie Jurassic Park, where a Brachiosaurus is shown rearing up. However, Bakker shows the skeleton of Brachiosaurus also (at right), and its vertebrae do not have the same long processes as Brontosaurus. Brachiosaurus has longer front legs and a relatively longer neck. It is thus adapted to high feeding without rearing up. The makers of Jurassic Park missed this, or ignored it. Meanwhile, other paleontologists simply don't believe that sauropods like this could even raise their heads, much less raise their whole bodies. One argument seems to be simple disbelief that the circulatory system could handle the low blood pressure that would result from the raised head. That there isn't a shred of evidence about what such circulatory systems were, and that giraffes have no trouble raising their heads for what are probably similar purposes of feeding (with physiological adaptations for the changes in blood pressure as the head is raised and lowered), doesn't seem to matter. I have not noticed any suggestions about what the long sauropod neck would have been for, if it was not for high level feeding. Bakker links the predominance of sauropods in the Jurassic with the absence of low level vegetation, while in the Cretaceous, the rise of flowering plants, with their low level leaves, resulted in the decline of sauropods and the predominance of other herbivores.

The idea that evolution represents progress is criticized by some scientists, like Stephen J. Gould himself. Gould thinks that "natural selection" contains so many accidental features that we can rarely say that its products are "better" than they might have been with some different outcome. There is no telling what kind of intelligent dinosaurs we might have now if they had not been knocked out by an asteroid 65 million years ago. Who are we to think that we are "better" than they might have been? Or, who are we to think that we are better than squids, trilobites, or horseshoe crabs?

The problem with Gould's point of view is that it rejects any possibility that some things are more organized than others. Yet life itself is more organized than inorganic nature. Life can occur because the situation of the Earth allows entropy to decrease rather than increase, increasing order rather than disorder, an unusual situation in the universe (and used by Creationists to deny that evolution is possible). But if the Earth allows order to increase over time, then it is reasonable to say that, barring accidents like the asteroid impacts, life will get more and more organized over time. If dinosaurs had lived, maybe there would be intelligent dinosaurs by now. But squids and horseshoe crabs have lived, quite content and unchanged in their own ancient ecological niches. Other forms of life, however, caught by ecological changes or radiating into new niches, have changed dramatically. With humans, lower entropy not only has occurred with human evolution, but humans now extensively organize Nature around them. We intentionally lower entropy through vast artificial constructions, in comparison to which the earlier artifacts of living things, like beaver dams, look like, well, mole hills. The system of life thus does represent, perhaps to the horror of someone like Stephen J. Gould, a hierarchy. Human beings indeed look like, as Pericles said, the "paragon of animals."

On the other hand, Gould sometimes displays towering good sense. His essay, "Bully for Brontosaurus" [Bully for Brontosaurus, Reflections in Natural History, 1991, W. W. Norton & Company, 1992], addresses the question of whether the genus Brontosaurus should be, or should have been, identified with and renamed Apatosaurus. Both genera had been named by O. C. Marsh, so there was no question of shifting credit for the discoveries. As early as 1903, Elmer Riggs, at the Field Museum of Natural History, argued that the identified Apatosaurus was simply a juvenile Brontosaurus. The American Museum of Natural History, which exhibits a fine Brontosaurus specimin, asserts that the name was "officially changed" because of Riggs' argument, since the naming of Apatosaurus had priority by a couple of years, although certain "writers" continue to use Brontosaurus. Since I never heard of Apatosaurus until the 1990's, when suddenly authorities were saying that the name that had been used for decades, Brontosaurus, was wrong, this was more than a little perplexing. And since one of the "writers" who continued to argue for Brontosaurus was no less than Stephen Jay Gould, who not only was professionally associated with the American Museum but, after Margaret Meade, was probably the most famous person to be so associated, one would think that the more common name should be given a bit more respect. Indeed, Gould's own argument is that one of the criteria for scientific naming is usage. Since Brontosaurus was the name in common usage of decades, and most people have never heard of Apatosaurus, that should have settled the matter. That it didn't raises the question why the "authorities" should suddenly have decided to switch things around on everyone. My suspicion that it is an example of one of the practical rules of bureaucracy, which is "jerk people around."

Nevertheless, we do see real progress in Paleontology. Gould himself relates his awe and fear in seeing the Tyrannosaurus rex at the American Museum when he was a child. But the Tyrannosaurus skeleton at the time was mounted in a clumsy upright stance, leaning back on its tail. This made it seem like the animal would move by waddling along, like a duck, dragging its tail. This was consistent with the general picture of dinosaurs at the time, as slow, stupid, and clumsy. In the 90's, however, the Museum remounted the Tyrannosaurus, as we see at right, in a way reflecting new ideas about dinosaur physiology and posture. Now, with the spine horizontal and the tail elevated, the Tyrannosaurus is probably considerably more terrifying, with its jaws at eye level, than in the older version. There are still paleontologists who think of dinosaurs as slow, and of Tyrannosaurus as only a scavenger, but the visual impression of this creature is very different. You better be running.

The variety of life here is one of the basic pieces of evidence for Evolution, since the development of one form of life out of another is a simpler explanation (observing "Ockham's Razor") than having the Creator engage in constant supernatural intervention in order to start off each species at its ordained time and place. Such a piecemeal job of Creation would have offended the sense of earlier theologians that God would act with simplicity, economy, and elegance -- which we still find Einstein expecting of the laws of nature as conceived by God. Advocates of Creationism and Intelligent Design expend far less criticism on their own theology than they do on Darwinism. The idea that God would not have anticipated and created all of history, coiled like a spring, right from the very beginning would have offended philosophers like both Spinoza and Leibniz, who otherwise would not have agreed on much.

The following table is preformatted for a fixed, non-proportional type font (like Courier). This preserves the pattern of the classification and its correspondence to the levels of classification given in the window at the top of the webpage. If desired, that window can be eliminated by moving the boundary line. If the font for the tables that appears on your page is not fixed width (non-proportional), the font should be changed by using the "preferences" menu on your browser. On a computer screen more than 640 pixels wide, the width of the windows can be optimized to include the whole width of the table.

The classification of Bacteria in Mr. Friend's book didn't match up very well with that in my older sources, like Margulis and Schwartz. A correspondent pointed out that the Phylum Proteobacteria did not even occur in the table. Thus, I have now included the Phyla for all Bacteria and subdivisions of the Proteobacteria as they are listed at Wikipedia. I have made some effort to match these up with the higher levels of classification already shown, but I don't know enough details to do this very effectively. I've also added the Wikipedia list of Phyla of Archaea (Archaebacteria), which do not correspond to the older names I had. So I end up with a bit of a hash of older and newer nomenclature. The future of classification is certainly to use mathematical formulae for differences in genetic content. There are genes for basic chemical activities in the cell that are basically shared by all living things. Beyond that we get degrees of difference.

Superkingdom Progenotes*.............................................................earliest cells
Superkingdom Archaebacteriae.............surviving archaic & anaerobic prokaryotic single cell life
   Kingdom Protomonera
            Superphylum Methanogenes
               Phylum Methaneocreatrices............................................methane forming
                                                            Genus Methanosarcina
                                                            Genus Methanobacterium
                                                            Genus Methanococcus
            Superphylum Thermoacidophiles.................................chemoautotrophic bacteria
             unclassified
               Phylum Aphragmabacteria?...................................without normal cell walls
               Phylum Thiopneutes?.................................................sulfate reducers
               Phylum Crenarchaeota
               Phylum Euryarchaeota
               Phylum Korarchaeota
               Phylum Nanoarchaeota
Superkingdom Eubacteria.......................................advanced prokaryotic single cell life
   Kingdom Monera
            Superphylum Spirochaetae....................................................spirochetes
               Phylum Spirochaetes
            Superphylum Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria............anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria
            Superphylum Cyanobacteria
               Phlyum Cyanobacteria
            Superphylum Chloroxybacteria..............................green photosynthetic bacteria
               Phlyum Chlorobi
               Phlyum Chloroflexi
            Superphylum Radiation Resistant Bacteria
            Superphylum Micrococci...........................................gram-positive bacteria
             unclassified
               Phylum Fermenting Bacteria?
               Phylum Nitrogen-Fixing Aerobic Bacteria?
               Phylum Pseudomonads?
               Phylum Aeroendospora?
               Phylum Myxobacteria?
               Phylum Omnibacteria?
               Phylum Acidobacteria
               Phlyum Actinobacteria
               Phlyum Aquificae
               Phlyum Bacteroidetes
               Phlyum Chlamydiae
               Phlyum Chrysiogenetes
               Phlyum Deferribacteres
               Phlyum Deinococcus-Thermus
               Phlyum Dictyoglomi
               Phlyum Fibrobacteres
               Phlyum Firmicutes
               Phlyum Fusobacteria
               Phlyum Gemmatimonadetes
               Phlyum Nitrospirae
               Phlyum Planctomycetes
               Phlyum Proteobacteria
                        Class Alpha Proteobacteria
                                    Order Caulobacterales...............................Caulobacter
                                    Order Kordiimonadales
                                    Order Parvularculales
                                    Order Rhizobiales......................................Rhizobia
                                    Order Rhodobacterales
                                    Order Rhodospirillales..............................Acetobacter
                                    Order Rickettsiales..................................Rickettsia
                                    Order Sphingomonadales.............................Sphingomonas
                        Class Beta Proteobacteria
                                    Order Burkholderiales................................Bordetella
                                    Order Hydrogenophilales
                                    Order Methylophilales
                                    Order Neisseriales....................................Neisseria
                                    Order Nitrosomonadales
                                    Order Rhodocyclales
                                    Order Procabacteriales
                        Class Gamma Proteobacteria
                                    Order Acidithiobacillales
                                    Order Aeromonadales...................................Aeromonas
                                    Order Alteromonadales.........................Pseudoalteromonas
                                    Order Cardiobacteriales
                                    Order Chromatiales.......................purple sulfur bacteria
                                    Order Enterobacteriales.............................Escherichia
                                    Order Legionellales..................................Legionella
                                    Order Methylococcales
                                    Order Oceanospirillales
                                    Order Pasteurellales................................Haemophilus
                                    Order Pseudomonadales...............................Pseudomonas
                                    Order Thiotrichales...............................Thiomargarita
                                    Order Vibrionales........................................Vibrio
                                    Order Xanthomonadales...............................Xanthomonas
                        Class Delta Proteobacteria
                                    Order Bdellovibrionales............................Bdellovibrio
                                    Order Desulfobacterales
                                    Order Desulfovibrionales
                                    Order Desulfurellales
                                    Order Desulfarcales
                                    Order Desulfuromonadales..............................Geobacter
                                    Order Myxococcales.................................Myxobacteria
                                    Order Syntrophobacterales
                        Class Epsilon Proteobacteria
                                    Order Campylobacterales............................Helicobacter
                                    Order Nautiliales
               Phylum Thermodesulfobacteria
               Phylum Thermomicrobia
               Phylum Thermotogae
               Phylum Verrucomicrobia
Superkingdom Urkaryotes*...................................prokaryotic cells that became eukaryotes
Superkingdom Eukaryotes............................................cells with nuclei and organelles
   Kingdom Protista..................................................single celled stock eukaryotes
      Subkingdom Protozoa
               Phylum Caryoblastea
               Phylum Ciliophora
               Phylum Actinopoda
               Phylum Dinoflagellata
               Phylum Foraminifera
               Phylum Cnidosporidia
               Phylum Zoomastigina
               Phylum Hyphochytridiomycota
               Phylum Oomycota
               Phylum Apicomplexa
               Phylum Chytridiomycota
      Subkingdom Thallophyta
               Phylum Rhizopoda
               Phylum Gamophyta
               Phylum Cryptophyta
               Phylum Euglenophyta
               Phylum Prasinophyta
               Phylum Chrysophyta
               Phylum Haptophyta
               Phylum Eustigmatophyta
               Phylum Xanthopyta
               Phylum Bacillariophyta
   Kingdom Myxomycophyta.................................................................Slim Molds
               Phylum Labyrinthulamycota.................................................slime nets
                                                            Genus Labyrinthula
                                                            Genus Labyrinthorhiza
               Phylum Acrasiomycota............................................cellular slime molds
                        Class Acrasea
                        Class Dictyostelia
               Phylum Myxomycota............................plasmodial slime molds, 400-500 species
                        Class Echinostelida
                                                   Family Echinosteliidae
                                                            Genus Echinostelium
                                                   Family Clastodermidae
                                                            Genus Clastroderma
                                                            Genus Barbeyella
                        Class Trichida
                        Class Liceida
                        Class Stemontida
                        Class Physarida
               Phylum Plasmodiophoromycota
   Kingdom Plantae
      Subkingdom Algae
               Phylum Rhodophyta...........................................red algae, deep seaweeds
               Phylum Phaeophyta..............................................brown algae, seaweeds
               Phylum Chlorophyta.......................................................green algae
               ?Phylum Charophyta
      Subkingdom Embryophyta
         Infrakingdom Bryophyta
               Phylum Bryophyta
                        Class Hepaticae..................................................liverworts
                        Class Anthocerotae................................................hornworts
                        Class Musci..........................................................mosses
         Infrakingdom Tracheohpyta..................................................vascular plants
            Superphylum Prospermopsida
               Phylum Psilopsida..................................psilophytes, dominant in Devonian
               Phylum Lycopodophyta.......................................dominant in Carboniferous
                        Class Lycopodiae
                                    Order Lycopodiales
                                                   Family Lycopoliaceae.................club mosses
                                                            Genus Lycopodium
               Phylum Sphenophyta...........................dominant in Carboniferous (1 genus now)
                        Class Equisetae
                                    Order Equisetales
                                                   Family Equisetaceae...................horsetails
                                                            Genus Equisetum
               Phylum Filicinophyta (Pteropsida)
                        Class Filicae.........................................................ferns
            Superphylum Spermopsida..............................spermatophyta, embryobearing seeds
               Phylum Gymnospermae
                  Subphylum Pteridospermae...............................................seed ferns
                  Subphylum Ginkgophyta....................................................ginkgoes
                  Subphylum Gnetophyta
                  Subphylum Coniferophyta
                                    Order Coniferales......................................conifers
                                                   Family Taxaceae
                                                            Genus Taxus
                                                   Family Pinaceae
                                                            Genus Pinus.......................pines
                                                            Genus Lari 
                                                            Genus Picea
                                                            Genus Abies
                                                            Genus Tsuga
                                                            Genus Taxodium
                                                            Genus Chamaecyparis
                                                            Genus Thuja
                                                            Genus Juniperus
                  Subphylum Cycadophyta..................................................seed ferns
               Phylum Angiospermophyta
                        Class Monocotyledoneae
                                    Order Liliales
                                                   Family Liliaceae..........................lilies
                                                            Genus Smila 
                        Class Dicotyledoneae
                           Subclass Archichlamydeae
                                    Order Salicales
                                                   Family Salicaceae
                                                            Genus Sali 
                                                            Genus Populus
                                    Order Myricales
                                                   Family Myricaceae....................wax myrtles
                                                            Genus Myrica
                                                            Genus Comptonia
                                    Order Leitneriales
                                                   Family Leitneriaceae
                                                            Genus Leitneria
                                    Order Juglandales
                                                   Family Juglandaceae.......................walnut
                                                            Genus Juglans
                                                            Genus Carya
                                    Order Fagales
                                                   Family Corylaceae
                                                            Genus Corylus
                                                            Genus Ostrya
                                                            Genus Carpinus
                                                            Genus Betula
                                                            Genus Alnu
                                                   Family Fagaceae
                                                            Genus Fagus
                                                            Genus Castanea
                                                            Genus Quercus
                                    Order Urticales
                                                   Family Ulmaceae.............................elms
                                                            Genus Ulmus
                                                            Genus Planera
                                                            Genus Celtis..................hackberry
                                                   Family Moraceae.........................mulberry
                                                            Genus Morus
                                                            Genus Broussonetia
                                                            Genus Maclura
                                    Order Santalales
                                                   Family Santalaceae....................sandalwood
                                                            Genus Pyrularia
                                                            Genus Nestronia
                                                            Genus Buckleya
                                                   Family Loranthaceae
                                                            Genus Phoradendron
                                                            Genus Arceuthobium
                                    Order Aristolochiales
                                                   Family Aristolochiaceae................birthwort
                                                            Genus Aristolochia
                                    Order Ranales
                                                   Family Ranunculaceae
                                                            Genus Clematis
                                                            Genus Xanthorhiza
                                                   Family Berberidaceae....................barberry
                                                            Genus Berberis
                                                   Family Menispermaceae
                                                            Genus Cocculus
                                                            Genus Menispermum
                                                            Genus Calycocarpum
                                                   Family Mangoliaceae.....................magnolia
                                                            Genus Mangolia
                                                            Genus Liriodendron
                                                   Family Calycanthaceae
                                                            Genus Calycanthus
                                                   Family Annonaceae
                                                            Genus Asimina
                                                   Family Lauraceae..........................laurel
                                                            Genus Persea
                                                            Genus Sassafras
                                                            Genus Litsea
                                                            Genus Lindera
                                    Order Rosales
                                                   Family Saxifrangaceae.................saxifrange
                                                            Genus Philadelphus
                                                            Genus Decumaria
                                                            Genus Hydrangea
                                                            Genus Itea
                                                            Genus Ribes
                                                   Family Hamamelidaceae................witch hazel
                                                            Genus Hamamelis
                                                            Genus Fothergilla
                                                            Genus Liquidambar
                                                   Family Platanaceae....................plane tree
                                                            Genus Platanus.................sycamore
                                                   Family Rosaceae............................roses
                                                            Genus Physocarpus
                                                            Genus Spiraea
                                                            Genus Pyrus
                                                            Genus Amelanchier
                                                            Genus Crataegus
                                                            Genus Cotoneaster
                                                            Genus Potentilla
                                                            Genus Dryas
                                                            Genus Rubus
                                                            Genus Rosa
                                                            Genus Runus
                                                   Family Leguminosae.........................beans
                                                            Genus Acacia
                                                            Genus Albizzia
                                                            Genus Gymnocladus
                                                            Genus Gleditsia
                                                            Genus Cercis
                                                            Genus Cladrastis
                                                            Genus Genista
                                                            Genus Cytisus
                                                            Genus Ule 
                                                            Genus Amorpha
                                                            Genus Robinia
                                                            Genus Wisteria
                                                            Genus Colutea
                                                            Genus Lespedeza
                                    Order Geraniales
                                                   Family Rutaceae...........................orange
                                                            Genus Xanthoxylum
                                                            Genus Phellodendron
                                                            Genus Ptelea
                                                            Genus Poncirus
                                                   Family Simaroubaceae
                                                            Genus Ailanthus
                                                   Family Meliaceae........................mahogany
                                                            Genus Melia
                                                   Family Euphorbiaceae
                                                            Genus Andrachne
                                    Order Sapindales
                                                   Family Empetraceae
                                                            Genus Empetrum
                                                            Genus Corema
                                                   Family Anacardiaceae
                                                            Genus Cotinus
                                                            Genus Rhus
                                                   Family Cyrillaceae
                                                            Genus Cyrilla
                                                   Family Aquifoliaceae.......................holly
                                                            Genus Ile 
                                                            Genus Nemopanthus
                                                   Family Celastraceae
                                                            Genus Euonymus
                                                            Genus Pachistima
                                                            Genus Celastrus
                                                   Family Staphylaceae
                                                            Genus Staphylea
                                                   Family Aceraceae
                                                            Genus Acer........................maple
                                                   Family Hippocastanaceae
                                                            Genus Aesculus
                                                   Family Sapindaceae
                                                            Genus Sapindus................soapberry
                                    Order Rhamnales
                                                   Family Rhamnaceae
                                                            Genus Berchemia
                                                            Genus Rhamnus
                                                            Genus Ceanothus
                                                   Family Vitaceae............................vines
                                                            Genus Ampelopsis
                                                            Genus Cissus
                                                            Genus Parthenocissus
                                                            Genus Vitis
                                    Order Mavales...........................................mallows
                                                   Family Tiliaceae
                                                            Genus Tilia
                                                   Family Malvaceae..........................mallow
                                                            Genus Hibiscus.................hibiscus
                                    Order Parietales
                                                   Family Theaceae
                                                            Genus Stewartia
                                                   Family Guttiferae
                                                            Genus Ascyrum
                                                            Genus Hypericum
                                                   Family Tamaricaceae
                                                            Genus Tamari 
                                                   Family Cistaceae
                                                            Genus Hudsonia
                                    Order Myrtales
                                                   Family Thymelaeaceae
                                                            Genus Dirca
                                                            Genus Daphne
                                                   Family Elaeagnaceae
                                                            Genus Eleagnus
                                                            Genus Shepherdia
                                                   Family Lythraceae....................loosestrife
                                                            Genus Decodon
                                                   Family Nyssaceae........................sour gum
                                                            Genus Nyssa
                                    Order Umbellales
                                                   Family Araliaceae
                                                            Genus Aralia
                                                            Genus Oplophana 
                                                            Genus Hedera
                                                   Family Cornaceae.........................dogwood
                                                            Genus Cornus
                           Subclass Metachlamydeae
                                    Order Ericales
                                                   Family Clethraceae
                                                            Genus Clethra
                                                   Family Pyrolaceae....................wintergreen
                                                            Genus Chimaphla
                                                   Family Ericaceae...........................heath
                                                            Genus Ledum
                                                            Genus Rhododendron
                                                            Genus Menziesia
                                                            Genus Leiophyllum
                                                            Genus Loiseleuria
                                                            Genus Kalmia
                                                            Genus Phyllodoce
                                                            Genus Andromeda
                                                            Genus Zenobia
                                                            Genus Pieris
                                                            Genus Lyonia
                                                            Genus Leucotho˙eu
                                                            Genus Oxydendrum
                                                            Genus Chamaedaphne
                                                            Genus Cassiope
                                                            Genus Epigaea
                                                            Genus Gaultheria
                                                            Genus Arctostaphylos
                                                            Genus Calluna
                                                            Genus Erica
                                                            Genus Gaylussacia
                                                            Genus Vaccinium
                                    Order Ebenales
                                                   Family Sapotaaceae.....................sapodilla
                                                            Genus Bumelia
                                                   Family Ebenaceae...........................ebony
                                                            Genus Diospyros
                                                   Family Symplocaceae
                                                            Genus Symplocos
                                                   Family Styracaceae
                                                            Genus Halesia................silverbell
                                                            Genus Styrax...................snowbell
                                    Order Oleales
                                                   Family Oleaceae............................olive
                                                            Genus Fraxinus
                                                            Genus Syringa
                                                            Genus Forestiera
                                                            Genus Chionanthus
                                                            Genus Osmanthus
                                                            Genus Ligustrum
                                    Order Gentianales
                                                   Family Loganiaceae.......................logania
                                                            Genus Gelsemium
                                                   Family Asclepiadaceae...................milkweed
                                                            Genus Periploca
                                    Order Solanales (Polemoniales)
                                                   Family Verbenaceae.......................verbena
                                                            Genus Callicarpa
                                                   Family Solanaceae.....................nightshade
                                                      Subfamily Solanaceae
                                                            Genus Solanum
                                                               species lycopersicon..........tomato
                                                               species tuberosum.............potato
                                                               species melongena...........eggplant
                                                               species dulcamara.........nightshade
                                                            Genus Capsicum............chile peppers
                                                               species annuum...bell, cayenne, etc.
                                                               species baccatum.................aji
                                                               species frutescens...........tabasco
                                                               species pubescens.............rocoto
                                                               species chinense............habanero
                                                            Genus Mandragora...............mandrake
                                                            Genus Datura................Jimson Weed
                                                            Genus Lycium..................wolfberry
                                                      Subfamily Nicotianoideae..............tobacco
                                                   Family Scrophulariaceae..................figwort
                                                            Genus Paulownia
                                                   Family Bignoniaceae......................begonia
                                                            Genus Campsis
                                                            Genus Bignonia
                                                            Genus Catalpa
                                    Order Rubiales
                                                   Family Rubiaceae..........................madder
                                                            Genus Mitchella
                                                            Genus Caphalanthus
                                                   Family Caprifolliaceae...............honeysuckle
                                                            Genus Diervilla
                                                            Genus Lonicera
                                                            Genus Symphoricarpos
                                                            Genus Linnaea
                                                            Genus Vibirnum
                                                            Genus Sambucus
                                    Order Campanulales
                                                   Family Compositae
                                                            Genus Baccharis
                                                            Genus Iva
                                                            Genus Borrichia
                                                            Genus Calendula................marigold
                                                            Genus Tagetes..................marigold
                                    Order Cyperales....grasses, 8,000 to 10,000 species
                                                   Family Poaceae/Gramineae
                                                      Subfamily Pooideae
                                                      Subfamily Panicoideae
                                                      Subfamily Bambusoideae
                                                      Subfamily Chloridoideae
                                                      Subfamily Arundinoideae
                                                      Subfamily Oryzoideae
   Kingdom Fungi
               Phylum Zygomycota
                        Class Mucorales
                        Class Entomophthorales
                        Class Zoopagales
               Phylum Ascomycota
                        Class Hemiascomycetae
                        Class Euascomycetae
                        Class Loculoascomycetae
                        Class Laboulbeniomyceatae
               Phylum Basidiomycota
                        Class Heterobasidiomycetae
                        Class Homobasidiomycetae
               Phylum Deuteromycota
                        Class Sphaeropsida
                        Class Melanconia
                        Class Monilia
                        Class Mycelia Sterilia
               Phylum Mycophycophyta........................................................Lichens
   Kingdom Animalia
      Subkingdom Parazoa
               Phylum Placozoa..........................................................one species
                                                            Genus Trichopla 
               Phylum Porifera..............................................................sponges
                        Class Calcarea...............................................chalky sponges
                        Class Hexactinellida..........................................glass sponges
                        Class Desmospongiae
                        Class Sclerospongiae
      Subkingdom Mesozoa...........................................like Porifera but have one organ
               Phylum Mesozoa
                        Class Dicyemida
                        Class Orthonectida
      Subkingdom Metazoa..............................tissues organized into organs & organ systems
         Infrakingdom Radiata..................................................two layers of tissue
               Phylum Coelenterata
                        Class Hydrozoa
                        Class Scyphozoa...................................................jellyfish
                        Class Anthozoa........................................sea anemones & corals
               Phylum Ctenophora.......................................................comb jellies
                        Class Tentaculata
                        Class Nuda
         Infrakingdom Acoelomata.............................three tissue layers but no body cavity
               Phylum Acoelomata
                  Subphylum Platyhelminthes...............................................flatworms
                        Class Turbellaria......................................freeliving flatworms
                        Class Trematoda......................................................flukes
                        Class Cestoda.....................................................tapeworms
                  Subphylum Nemertina...............................................proboscis worms
         Infrakingdom Pseudocoelomata....................body cavity but not surrounded by mesoderm
               Phylum Pseudocoelomata
                  Subphylum Acanthocephala.......................................spiny-headed worms
                  Subphylum Aschelminthes
                        Class Rotifera.....................................................rotifers
                        Class Gastrotricha
                        Class Kinorhyncha
                        Class Priapulida
                        Class Nematoda..................................................round worms
                        Class Nematomorpha..........................................horsehair worms
                  Subphylum Entoprocta
         Infrakingdom Coelomata........................body cavity surrounded by mesoderm, a coelom
            Superphylum Protostomia........................................blastopore becomes mouth
               Phylum Lophophorata
                  Subphylum Ectoprocta......................................bryozoans, moss animals
                        Class Gymnolaemata
                        Class Phylactolaemata
                  Subphylum Phoronida
                  Subphylum Brachiopoda.................................................lamp shells
                        Class Inarticulata
                        Class Articulata
               Phylum Mollusca.............................................................molluscs
                        Class Amphineura
                        Class Monoplacophora
                        Class Gastropoda.....................................................snails
                        Class Scaphopoda
                        Class Pelecypoda...................................................bivalves
                        Class Cephalopoda......................................squids, octopi, etc.
                           Subclass Nautiloidea..........................two genera, external shell
                                    Order Nautilida
                                                   Family Nautilidae
                                                            Genus Nautilus.......chambered nautilus
                                                            Genus Allonautilus......Crusty nautilus

                                    Order Bacritina*..............ancestors of Ammonites & Coleoids
                           Subclass Ammonoidea*......................Ammonites, exinct Celphalopods
                                    Order Clymeniina*
                                    Order Anarcestina*
                                    Order Prolecantina*
                                    Order Goniatitina*
                                    Order Ceratitina*
                                    Order Lytoceratina*
                                    Order Ancyloceratina*
                                    Order Ammonitina*................................true Ammonites
                                    Order Phylloceratina*
                           Subclass Coleoidea........................internal, reduced, or no shell
                                 Superorder Octopodiformes...............................eight legs
                                    Order Belemnitina*...................................belemnites
                                    Order Octopoda...........................octopuses, 150 species
                                       Suborder Cirrina...................finned deep-sea octopuses
                                                   Family Cirroteuthidae
                                                   Family Opisthoteuthidae
                                       Suborder Incirrina
                                                   Family Bolitaenidae.........gelatinous octopuses
                                                   Family Amphitretidae...........telescope octopus
                                                   Family Vitreledonellidae...........glass octopus
                                                Superfamily Argonautoidea
                                                   Family Argonautidae....................Argonauts
                                                   Family Ocythoidae...............football octopus
                                                   Family Tremoctopodidae.........blanket octopuses
                                                   Family Alloposidae.............seven-arm octopus
                                                   Family Octopodidae.............benthic octopuses
                                    Order Vampyromorpha
                                                   Family Vampyroteuthidae............vampire squid
                                 Superorder Decapodiformes...............eight legs & two tentacles
                                    Order Spirulida
                                                   Family Spirulidae...............Ram's Horn Squid
                                    Order Sepiida
                                                   Family Sepiidae.....................cuttlefishes
                                    Order Sepiolida
                                                   Family Sepiolidae.................bobtail squids
                                                   Family Sepiariidae.............bottletail squids
                                    Order Idiosepiida
                                                   Family Idiosepiidae.................pygmy squids
                                    Order Teuthida...........................................squids
                                       Suborder Myopsina
                                                   Family Loliginidae.....inshore & calamari squids
                                                            Genus Loligo...............market squid
                                                            Genus Sepioteuthis.............Calamari
                                                   Family Pickfordiateuthidae..........grass squids
                                       Suborder Oegopsina
                                                   Family Architeuthidae
                                                            Genus Architeuthis..........giant squid
                                                   Family Bathyteuthidae
                                                   Family Chtenopterygidae.......comb-finned squids
                                                   Family Cranchiidae..................glass squids
                                                   Family Enoploteuthidae
                                                   Family Gonatidae..................armhook squids
                                                   Family Histioteuthidae..............jewel squids
                                                   Family Joubiniteuthidae..........Joubin's squids
                                                   Family Magnapinnidae...............bigfin squids
                                                   Family Octopoteuthidae..........eight-arm squids
                                                   Family Mastigoteuthidae.........whip-lash squids
                                                   Family Chiroteuthidae
                                                   Family Ommastrephidae..............flying squids
                                                   Family Onychoteuthidae.............hooked squids
                                                   Family Pyroteuthidae.................fire squids
                                                   Family Thysanoteuthidae..........rhomboid squids
               Phylum Sipunculida
               Phylum Echiurida
               Phylum Annelida......................................................segmented worms
                        Class Polychaeta......................................sand worms, tubeworms
                        Class Oligochaeta................................................earthworms
                        Class Hirudinea.....................................................leeches
               Phylum Onychophora
               Phylum Tardigrada.........................................................water bear
               Phylum Pentastomida
               Phylum Arthropoda
                  Subphylum Trilobita*.........................trilobites, extinct end of Paleozoic
                  Subphylum Chelicerata
                        Class Eurypterida*
                        Class Xiphosura.............................................horseshoe crabs
                                    Order Xiphosura....................................four species
                                                            Genus Limulus.....Delaware horshoe crab
                        Class Arachnida.............................spiders, scorpions, ticks, etc.
                        Class Pycnogonida...............................................sea spiders
                  Subphylum Mandibulata
                        Class Crustacea
                           Subclass Malacostraca
                                 Superorder Eucarida
                                    Order Decapoda
                                          Infraorder Stenopodidea
                                          Infraorder Caridea................................shrimps
                                          Infraorder Penaeidea...............................prawns
                                          Infraorder Astacidea.............................lobsters
                                          Infraorder Palinuridea...........................lobsters
                                          Infraorder Anomura..................................crabs
                                          Infraorder Brachyrua
                                          Infraorder Thalassinidea
                                    Order Euphausiacea
                                                   Family Thysanopodidae......................Krill
                                 Superorder Hoplocarida
                                    Order Stomatopoda................................mantis shrimps
                                 Superorder Peracarida
                                    Order Amphipoda.......................................amphipods
                                    Order Isopoda
                           Subclass Maxillipoda
                              Infraclass Cirripedia
                              Infraclass Copepoda
                        Class Chilopoda...................................................centipeds
                        Class Diplopoda....................................................millpeds
                        Class Pauropoda
                        Class Symphyla
                        Class Insecta
                                    Order Colembola.....................................springtails
                                    Order Protura
                                    Order Deplura
                                    Order Thysanura....................................bristletails
                                    Order Ephemerida.......................................mayflies
                                    Order Odonata.......................................dragonflies
                                    Order Orthoptera............grasshopers, crickets, cockcroaches
                                    Order Dermaptera........................................earwigs
                                    Order Embiaria
                                    Order Plecoptera.....................................stoneflies
                                    Order Zoraptera
                                    Order Corrodentia.....................................book lice
                                    Order Mallophaga...................................chewing lice
                                    Order Anoplura.....................................sucking lice
                                    Order Thysanoptera.......................................thrips
                                    Order Hemiptera..............cicadas, aphids, leafhoppers, etc.
                                    Order Neuroptera................................lacewings, etc.
                                    Order Coleoptera.........................bettles, weevils, etc.
                                    Order Hymenoptera.......................wasps, bees, ants, etc.
                                    Order Mecoptera...................................scorpionflies
                                    Order Siphonaptera........................................fleas
                                    Order Diptera............................true flies, mosquitoes
                                    Order Trichoptera
                                    Order Lepidoptera............................moths, butterflies
            Superphylum Deuterostomia.......................................blastopore becomes anus
               Phylum Pogonophora........................................................bear worms
               Phylum Echinodermata........................................................starfish
                        Class Crinoidea..................................................sea lilies
                        Class Asteroidea...................................................starfish
                        Class Ophiuroidea.......................................brittle stars, etc.
                        Class Echinoidea............................sea urchins, sand dollars, etc.
                        Class Holothuroidea...........................................sea cucumbers
               Phylum Chaetognatha
               Phylum Chordata
                  Subphylum Hemichordata
                        Class Enteropneusta.............................................arrow worms
                        Class Pterobranchia
                  Subphylum Cephalochordata......................................lancets, amphiocus
                  Subphylum Urochordata...................................................tunicates
                        Class Ascidiacea................................................sea squirts
                        Class Thaliacea
                        Class Larvacea
                  Subphylum Vertebrata
                     Superclass Pisces
                        Class Agnatha
                           Subclass Monorhina...........................dorsal nostril between eyes
                                    Order Cephalaspida*
                                    Order Anaspida*
                           Subclass Diplorhina....................................no dorsal nostril
                                    Order Pteraspida*
                                    Order Coelolepida*
                           Subclass Cyclostomata..............................modern jawless fishes
                                    Order Myxiniformes....................................hagfishes
                                    Order Petromyzontiformes..............................hagfishes
                        Class Placodermi.........................................first jawed fishes
                                    Order Arthrodira*
                                    Order Pyctodontida*
                                    Order Petalichthyida*
                                    Order Antiarchi*
                                    Order Rhenanida*
                                    Order Phyllolopida*
                                    Order Palaeospondyloidea*
                        Class Acanthodii...............................................spiny fishes
                                    Order Climatiformes*
                                    Order Ischnacanthiformes*
                                    Order Acanthodiformes*
                        Class Chondrichthyes....................................cartilainous fishes
                           Subclass Elasmobranchii...........................................sharks
                                    Order Clasdoselachiformes*
                                    Order Pleuracanthiformes*
                                    Order Heterodontiformes
                                    Order Hexanchiformes
                                    Order Lamniformes
                                       Suborder Galeoidei........................most living sharks
                                       Suborder Squaloidei..........................dogfishes, etc.
                                       Suborder Batoidei..............................skates & rays
                           Subclass Holocephali...........................................sharklike
                                    Order Chimaeriformes.....................chimaeras or ratfishes
                        Class Osteichthyes..............................................bony fishes
                           Subclass Actinopterygii.................................rayfinned fishes
                              Infraclass Chondrostei............................primitive rayfinned
                                    Order Palaeonisciformes*
                                    Order Polypteriformes
                                    Order Acipenseriformes
                              Infraclass Holostei............................intermediate rayfinned
                                    Order Semionotiformes*
                                    Order Pycnodontiformes*
                                    Order Amiiformes
                                    Order Aspidorhynchiformes*
                              Infraclass Teleostei.................................advanced rayfins
                                 Superorder Pholidophoromorpha*
                                    Order Pholidophoriformes*
                                 Superorder Leptolepidomorpha*
                                    Order Leptolepiformes*
                                 Superorder Elopomorpha
                                    Order Elopiformes
                                    Order Anguilliformes.......................................eels
                                    Order Notocanthiformes
                                 Superorder Clupeomorpha
                                    Order Clupeiformes.....................................herrings
                                 Superorder Osteoglossomorpha
                                    Order Osteoglossiformes
                                    Order Mormyriformes
                                 Superorder Protacanthopterygii
                                    Order Salmoniformes..............................salmon & trout
                                    Order Ctenothrissiformes*
                                    Order Gonorhynchiformes
                                 Superorder Ostariophysi
                                    Order Cypriniformes.........................minnows, carp, etc.
                                    Order Siluriformes......................................catfish
                                 Superorder Paracanthopterygii
                                    Order Polymi iiformes
                                    Order Percopsiformes
                                    Order Gadiformes...................................cod, haddock
                                    Order Batrachoidiformes
                                    Order Lophiiformes......................................anglers
                                    Order Gobiesociformes
                                 Superorder Atherinomorpha
                                    Order Atheriniformes................................flying fish
                                 Superorder Acanthopterygii
                                    Order Beryciformes
                                    Order Zeiformes
                                    Order Lampridiformes
                                    Order Gasterosteiformes..............................sea horses
                                    Order Channiformes
                                    Order Synbranchiformes
                                    Order Scorpaeniformes
                                    Order Dactylopteriformes
                                    Order Pegasiformes
                                    Order Perciformes
                                    Order Pleuronectiformes
                                    Order Tetraodontiformes
                           Subclass Sarcopterygii................................lobe-finned fishes
                                    Order Crossopterygii
                                       Suborder Rhipidistia*
                                                Superfamily Osteolepiformes*
                                                Superfamily Porolepiformes*
                                       Suborder Coelacanthini.......................Genus Latimeria
                                    Order Dipnoi.........................................lungfishes
                     Superclass Tetrapoda
                        Class Amphibia
                           Subclass Labyrinthodontia*
                                    Order Ichthyostegalia*
                                    Order Temnospondyli*
                                       Suborder Rhachitomi*
                                       Suborder Stereospondyli*
                                       Suborder Plagiosauria*
                                    Order Anthracosauria*
                                       Suborder Schizomeri*
                                       Suborder Diplomeri*
                                       Suborder Embolomeri*
                                       Suborder Seymouriamorpha*
                           Subclass Lepospondyli*
                                    Order Nectridia*
                                    Order Aistopoda*
                                    Order Mecrosauria*
                           Sublcass Lissamphibia..................................modern amphibians
                                 Superorder Salientia.................................frogs & toads
                                    Order Proanura*
                                    Order Anura................................modern frogs & toads
                                 Superorder Caudata
                                    Order Urodela...............................salamanders & newts
                                    Order Apoda
                        Class Reptilia
                           Subclass Anapsida............................................solid skull
                                    Order Cotylosauria*
                                       Suborder Gephyrostegomorpha*
                                       Suborder Captorhinomorpha*
                                       Suborder Procolophonia*
                                       Suborder Diadectomorpha*
                                    Order Chelonia..........................................turtles
                                       Suborder Proganochelydia*
                                       Suborder Amphichelydia*
                                       Suborder Pleurodira
                                       Suborder Cryptodira
                                       Suborder Eunotosuria*
                                    Order Mesosauria*
                           Subclass Synapsida..................................mammal-like reptiles
                                    Order Pelycosauria*
                                       Suborder Ophiacodontia*
                                       Suborder Sphenacodontia...........................carnivores
                                       Suborder Edaphosauria.............................herbivores
                                    Order Therapsida*
                                       Suborder Anomodontia*
                                          Infraorder Dromasauria*
                                          Infraorder Dinocephalia*
                                          Infraorder Venyukoviamorpha*
                                          Infraorder Dicynodontia*
                                       Suborder Phthinosuchia*
                                       Suborder Theriodontia*
                                          Infraorder Gorgonopsia*
                                          Infraorder Therocephalia*
                                          Infraorder Bauriamorpha*
                                          Infraorder Cynodontia*
                                          Infraorder Tritylodontia*
                                          Infraorder Ictidosauria*
                           Subclass Euryapsida.............................may be modified Diapsids
                                    Order Protorosuria*
                                    Order Sauropterygia*
                                       Suborder Nothosauria*
                                                Superfamily Pistosauroidea*
                                                Superfamily Pliosauroidea*
                                                Superfamily Plesiosauroidea*
                                    Order Placodontia*
                                                   Family Placodontidae*
                                                   Family Cyamodontidae*
                                                   Family Henodontidae*
                                    Order Ichthysosauria*
                                                   Family Utatsusauridae*
                                                   Family Omphalosauridae*
                                                   Family Mixosauridae*
                                                   Family Shastasauridae*
                                                   Family Ichthyosauridae*
                                                            Genus Ichthyosaurus........dolphin-like
                                                   Family Stenopterygiidae*
                                                   Family Protoichtyosauridae*
                                                   Family Leptopterygiidae*
                           Subclass Diapsida
                              Infraclass Lepidosauria
                                    Order Eosuchia*
                                    Order Rhynchocephalia
                                    Order Squamata
                                       Suborder Lacertilia
                                       Suborder Ophidia
                              Infraclass Archosauria
                                    Order Thecodontia*.......................ancestors of dinosaurs
                                       Suborder Proterosuchia*
                                       Suborder Pseudosuchia*
                                       Suborder Aetosauria*
                                       Suborder Phytosauria*
                                    Order Crocodilia
                                       Suborder Protosuchia*
                                       Suborder Mesosuchia*
                                       Suborder Sebecosuchia*
                                       Suborder Eusuchia
                        Class Endosauropsida....................................dinosaurs and birds
                           Subclass Dinosauria*
                                    Order Ornithischia........................bird hipped dinosaurs
                                       Suborder Ornithopoda*
                                                   Family Fabrosauirdae*
                                                   Family Heterodontosauridae*
                                                   Family Dryosauridae*
                                                   Family Hypsilophodontidae*
                                                   Family Iguanodontidae*
                                                            Genus Camptosaurus*
                                                            Genus Iguanodon*
                                                   Family Hadrosauridae*
                                                            Genus Hadrosaurus*
                                       Suborder Pachycephalosauria*
                                                   Family Pachycephalosauridae*
                                                   Family Homalocephalidae*
                                       Suborder Stegosauria*
                                                   Family Scelidosauridae*
                                                   Family Stegosauridae*
                                                            Genus Stegosaurus*
                                       Suborder Ankylosauria*
                                                   Family Nodosauridae*
                                                   Family Ankylosauridae*
                                                            Genus Ankylosaurus*
                                       Suborder Ceratopsia*
                                                   Family Psittacosauridae*
                                                   Family Protoceratopsidae*
                                                   Family Ceratopsidae*
                                                            Genus Monoclonius*
                                                            Genus Styracosaurus*
                                                            Genus Chasmosaurus*
                                                            Genus Triceratops*
                                    Order Saurischia........................lizard hipped dinosaurs
                                     unclassified
                                          Infraorder Segnosauria*
                                                            Genus Segnosaurus*
                                       Suborder Palaeopoda*
                                          Infraorder Palaeosauriscia*
                                          Infraorder Plateosauria*
                                       Suborder Sauropodamorpha*
                                          Infraorder Plateosauria*
                                                   Family Anchisauridae*
                                                   Family Melanorosauridae*
                                                   Family Blikanasauridae*
                                          Infraorder Sauropoda*
                                                   Family Cetiosauridae
                                                   Family Diplodocidae
                                                            Genus Brontosaurus*......classical name
                                                            Genus Barosaurus*
                                                            Genus Diplodocus*
                                                   Family Brachiosauridae*
                                                            Genus Brachiosaurus*
                                                            Genus Bothriospondylus*
                                                   Family Titanosauridae*
                                                            Genus Alamosaurus*
                                                   Family Camarasaurideae*
                                                            Genus Camarasaurus*
                                                   Family Euhelopodidae
                                       Suborder Theropoda*
                                        unclassified
                                                   Family Podokesauridae*
                                                   Family Shanshanosauridae*
                                                   Family Elmisauridae*
                                          Infraorder Coelurosauria*
                                                   Family Compsognathidae
                                                   Family Coeluridae*
                                          Infraorder Ornithomimosauria*
                                                   Family Oviraptoridae*
                                                   Family Ornithomimidae*
                                                            Genus Ornithomimus*
                                                            Genus Struthiomimus*
                                          Infraorder Deinonychosauria*
                                                   Family Deinocheiridae*
                                                   Family Dromaeosauridae*
                                                            Genus Deinonychus*
                                                   Family Saurornithoididae*
                                                   Family Therezinosauridae*
                                          Infraorder Carnosauria*
                                                   Family Tryannosauridae*
                                                            Genus Tyrannosaurus*
                                                   Family Megalosauridae*
                                                            Genus Megasaurus*
                                                   Family Allosauridae*
                                                            Genus Allosaurus*
                                                   Family Dryptosauridae*
                                                   Family Ceratosauridae*
                                                   Family Spinosauridae*
                                    Order Pterosauria*
                                       Suborder Rhamphorhynchoidea*
                                       Suborder Pterodactyloidea*
                           Subclass Aves........................................birds, 9000 species
                              Infraclass Archaeornithes*
                                    Order Archaeopterygiformes*
                              Infraclass Neornithes
                                 Superorder Odontognathae*
                                    Order Hesperornitheforms*
                                    Order Ichthyornitheformes*
                                 Superorder Palaeognathae
                                    Order Tinamiformes
                                                   Family Tinamidae
                                    Order Struthioniformes
                                                   Family Struthionidae...................ostriches
                                    Order Rheiformes*
                                                   Family Opisthodactylidae*
                                                   Family Rheidae.............................rheas
                                    Order Casuariiformes
                                                   Family Casuariidae
                                                   Family Dromaiidae
                                                   Family Dromornithidae
                                    Order Aepyornithiformes*
                                                   Family Aepyornithidae*
                                    Order Dinornithiformes*
                                                   Family Dinornithidae........................moas
                                    Order Apterygiformes
                                                   Family Apterygidae.........................kiwis
                                 Superorder Neognathae
                                    Order Gaviiformes.........................................loons
                                    Order Podicipediformes...................................grebes
                                    Order Procellariiformes...................albatrosses & petrels
                                    Order Sphenisciformes..................................penguins
                                    Order Pelecaniformes...................................pelicans
                                    Order Ciconoiiformes............................herons & storks
                                    Order Anseriformes........................ducks, geese, & swans
                                                   Family Anatidae
                                                      Subfamily Cygninae......................swans
                                                      Subfamily Anserinae.....................geese
                                                      Subfamily Dendrocygninae...........tree ducks
                                                      Subfamily Anatinae......................ducks
                                                            Genus Mareca...................widgeons
                                                            Genus Spatula..................shoveler
                                                            Genus Aix.....................wood duck
                                                            Genus Anas........mallards, teals, etc.
                                                               species platyrhynchos........mallard
                                                      Subfamily Aythyinae..............diving ducks
                                                      Subfamily Oxyurinae........stiff-tailed ducks
                                    Order Falconiformes............vultures, hawks, falcons, eagles
                                    Order Galliformes.............grouse, quail, turkeys, pheasants
                                    Order Gruiformes...................................cranes, etc.
                                    Order Diatrymiformes*
                                    Order Charadriiformes...............................gulls, etc.
                                    Order Columbiformes.......................pigeons, dodos, doves
                                    Order Psittaciformes....................lories, parrots, macaws
                                    Order Cuculiformes.........................cuckoos, roadrunners
                                    Order Strigiformes.........................................owls
                                    Order Caprimulgiformes
                                    Order Apodiformes..........................swifts, hummingbirds
                                    Order Coliiformes
                                    Order Trogoniformes
                                    Order Coraciiformes...........................kingfishers, etc.
                                    Order Piciformes.....................toucans, woodpeckers, etc.
                                    Order Passeriformes................perching birds, 5300 species
                                       Suborder Oligomyodi...........suboscines; from South America
                                          Infraorder Acanthisittides..............New Zealand wrens
                                          Infraorder Pittides......................broadbills, etc.
                                          Infraorder Tyrannides
                                             Parvorder Thamnophilida...............typical antbirds
                                             Parvorder Furnariida
                                                Superfamily Formicarioidea.........ground antibirds
                                                Superfamily Furnarioidea............ovenbirds, etc.
                                       Suborder Passeres......................oscines; 4000 species
                                             Parvorder Corvida.................evolved in Australia
                                                Superfamily Menuroidea
                                                Superfamily Meliphagoidea
                                                Superfamily Corvoidea..........crows, jays, magpies
                                                   Family Corvidae
                                                            Genus Perisoreus..............gray jays
                                                            Genus Cyanocitta..............blue jays
                                                            Genus Aphelocoma.............scrub jays
                                                               species coerulescens..California jay
                                                            Genus Cyanocorax.............green jays
                                                            Genus Pica......................magpies
                                                            Genus Corvus.............crows & ravens
                                                            Genus Gymnorhinus.............piñon jay
                                                            Genus Nucifraga......Clark's nutcracker
                                             Parvorder Passerida
                                                Superfamily Passeroidea........larks, orioles, etc.
                                                Superfamily Sylvioidea..............wrens, swallows
                                                Superfamily Muscicapoidea
                                                   Family Bombycillidae....................waxwings
                                                   Family Cincilidae........................dippers
                                                   Family Turdidae.........................thrushes
                                                   Family Sturnidae
                                                         Tribe Mimini..................mockingbirds
                                                         Tribe Sturnini.......................mynas
                        Class Mammalia
                           Sublcass Eotheria*
                                    Order Docodonta*
                                    Order Triconodonta*
                           Subclass Prototheria
                                    Order Monotremata............................platypus & echidna
                           Subclass Allotheria*
                                    Order Multituberculata*
                                       Suborder Plagiaulacoidea*
                                       Suborder Taeniolabidoidea*
                                       Suborder Ptilodontoidea*
                           Subclass Theria
                              Infraclass Pantotheria*
                                    Order Eupantotheria*
                                    Order Symmetrodonta*
                              Infraclass Metatheria.........................................pouches
                                 Superorder Marsupialia
                                    Order Marsupicarnivora..................American opossums, etc.
                                    Order Paucituberculata
                                    Order Peramelina.....................................bandicoots
                                    Order Diprotodonta.......................koala, kangaroos, etc.
                                       Suborder Vombatiformes.....................wombats and koala
                                       Suborder Phalangeriformes...Aussi possums, sugar glider, etc.
                                       Suborder Macropodiformes
                                                   Family Balbaridae*...........ancestral kangaroos
                                                   Family Macropodidae...kangaroos, wallabies, etc.
                                                   Family Potoroidae.......bettongs, potaroos, etc.
                                                   Family Hypsiprymnodontidae....musky rat-kangaroo
                              Infraclass Eutheria........................................placentals
                                 Superorder Afrotheria...........................African placentals
                                    Order Tubulidentata...................................aardvarks
                                    Order Proboscidea.....................................elephants
                                       Suborder Moeritherioidea*
                                       Suborder Dinotherioidea*
                                       Suborder Barytherioidea*
                                       Suborder Euelphantoidea
                                                Superfamily Gomphotherioidea*
                                                Superfamily Mastodontoidea................mastodons
                                                Superfamily Elephantoidea......elephants & mammoths
                                    Order Sirenia.................................sea cows/manatees
                                    Order Hyracoidea..........................................Hyrax
                                 Superorder Xenarthra.....................South American placentals
                                    Order Edentata
                                       Suborder Palaeanodonta*
                                       Suborder Cingulata..................armadillos & glyptodonts
                                       Suborder Pilosa............................sloths, anteaters
                                    Order Xenungulata*.....................South American ungulates
                                    Order Pyrotheria*......................South American ungulates
                                    Order Notoungulata*....................South American ungulates
                                       Suborder Notioprogonia*
                                       Suborder Toxodontia*
                                       Suborder Typotheria*
                                       Suborder Hegetotheria*
                                    Order Astrapotheria*...................South American ungulates
                                    Order Litopterna*......................South American ungulates
                                 Superorder Laurasiatheria.....Eurasian & North American placentals
                                    Order Dermoptera
                                    Order Taeniodonta*
                                    Order Tillodontia*
                                    Order Chrioptera...........................................bats
                                       Suborder Microchiroptera
                                       Suborder Megachiroptera
                                    Order Insectivora
                                       Suborder Proteutheria*
                                       Suborder Macroscelidea
                                       Suborder Dilambdodonta.............moles, hedgehogs, & shews
                                       Suborder Zalambdodonta
                                    Order Cetacia............................................whales
                                       Suborder Archaeoceti*
                                       Suborder Odontoceti.................dolphins, toothed whales
                                       Suborder Mysticeti..........................whalebone whales
                                    Order Creodonta..............................ancient carnivores
                                       Suborder Deltatheridia*
                                                   Family Deltatheriidae*
                                                   Family Didymoconidae*
                                       Suborder Hyaenodontia*
                                                   Family Hyaenodontidae*
                                                   Family Oxyeanidae*
                                    Order Carnivora
                                       Suborder Fissipedia...................land living carnivores
                                                Superfamily Miacoidea*
                                                   Family  Miacidae*
                                                   Family Viverravidae*
                                                Superfamily Canoidea
                                                   Family Canidae..............................dogs
                                                   Family Ursidae.............................bears
                                                   Family Ailuridae..........................pandas
                                                   Family Procyonidae.................racoons, etc.
                                                   Family Mustelidae..........skunks, weasels, etc.
                                                Superfamily Feloidea (Aeluroidea)
                                                   Family Viverridae
                                                   Family Hyaenidae.........................hyaenas
                                                   Family Felidae..............................cats
                                       Suborder Pinnipedia...............................seals etc.
                                    Order Condylarthra*
                                    Order Amblypoda*
                                       Suborder Pantodonta*
                                       Suborder Dinocerata*
                                    Order Pholidota.......................................pangolins
                                    Order Perissodacyla..........................odd toed ungulates
                                       Suborder Hippomorpha
                                                Superfamily Equoidea
                                                   Family Equidae............................horses
                                                Superfamily Brontotherioidea*
                                       Suborder Ancylopoda*
                                       Suborder Ceratomorpha
                                                Superfamily Tapiroidea.......................tapirs
                                                Superfamily Rhinocerotoidea..................rhinos
                                    Order Ariodacyla............................even toed ungulates
                                       Suborder Paleodonta*
                                                Superfamily Dichobunoidea*
                                                Superfamily Entelodontoidea*
                                       Suborder Suina
                                                Superfamily Suoidea............................pigs
                                                Superfamily Anthracotherioidea*
                                                Superfamily Hippopotamoidea.................hippoes
                                       Suborder Ancodonta*
                                                Superfamily Cainotherioidea*
                                                Superfamily Merycoidondontoidea*
                                       Suborder Tylopoda............................camels & llamas
                                       Suborder Ruminantia................................ruminants
                                                Superfamily Traguloidea
                                                Superfamily Cervoidea
                                                Superfamily Giraffoidea.....................giraffs
                                                Superfamily Bovoidea...........................cows
                                    Order Desmostylia
                                    Order Embrithopoda*
                                 Superorder Euarchontoglires...............rhodents, primates, etc.
                                    Order Rodentia
                                       Suborder Protorogomorpha*
                                       Suborder Sciuromorpha..............................squirrels
                                       Suborder Caviomorpha
                                       Suborder Myomorpha...............................mice & rats
                                       Suborder Castorimorpha...............................beavers
                                       Suborder Theridomyomorpha*
                                       Suborder Hystricomorpha...........................procupines
                                       Suborder Thryonomyomorpha
                                       Suborder Ctenodactylomorpha
                                    Order Lagomorpha........................................rabbits
                                    Order Scandentia
                                                Superfamily Tupaeoidea.............or with Primates
                                                   Family Tupaiidae.....................tree shrews
                                                      Subfamily Tupaiinae
                                                            Genus Tupaia
                                                            Genus Dendrogale
                                                            Genus Urogale
                                                      Subfamily Ptilocercinae
                                                            Genus Ptilocerus
                                    Order Primates..............prosimians, monkeys, apes, & humans
                                       Suborder Plesiadapiformes*
                                                Superfamily Paramomyoidea*
                                                   Family Paromomyidae*
                                                   Family Picrodontidae*
                                                   Family Microsyopidae*
                                                Superfamily Plesiadapoidea
                                                   Family Plesiadapidae*
                                                   Family Saxonellidae*
                                                   Family Carpolestidae*
                                       Suborder Strepsirrhines
                                          Infraorder Prosimii
                                             Parvorder Adapiformes*
                                                   Family Adapidae*
                                             Parvorder Lemuriformes
                                                Superfamily Lemuroidea
                                                   Family Lemuridae..........................lemurs
                                                      Subfamily Lemurinae
                                                            Genus Lemur
                                                            Genus Hapalemur
                                                            Genus Lepilemur
                                                   Family Megalapidae*
                                                            Genus Megalapis*
                                                Superfamily Indrioidea
                                                   Family Indriidae
                                                            Genus Mesopropithecus*
                                                            Genus Indri
                                                            Genus Lichanotus
                                                            Genus Propithecus
                                                   Family Daubentoniidae
                                                            Genus Daubentonia
                                                   Family Archaeolemuridae*
                                                            Genus Archaeolemur*
                                                            Genus Hadropithecus*
                                                   Family Palaeopropithecidae*
                                                            Genus Palaeopropithecus*
                                                            Genus Archaeoindris*
                                                Superfamily Lorisoidea
                                                   Family Lorisidae.........................lorises
                                                            Genus Loris
                                                            Genus Nycticebus
                                                            Genus Arctocebus
                                                            Genus Perodicticus
                                                   Family Cheirogaleinae
                                                            Genus Cheirogaleus
                                                            Genus Microcebus
                                                            Genus Phaner
                                                   Family Galagidae
                                                      Subfamily Galaginae
                                                            Genus Galago
                                                            Genus Euoticus
                                       Suborder Haplorhines
                                          Infraorder Tarsiiformes
                                                Superfamily Tarsioidea
                                                   Family Omomyidae*
                                                            Genus Absarokius*
                                                            Genus Altanius*
                                                            Genus Anaptomorphus*
                                                            Genus Anemorphysis*
                                                            Genus Chlororhysis*
                                                            Genus Chumashius*
                                                            Genus Donrussellia*
                                                            Genus Dyseolemur*
                                                            Genus Ekgmowechashala*
                                                            Genus Hemiacodon*
                                                            Genus Hoanghonius*
                                                            Genus Kohatius*
                                                            Genus Loveina*
                                                            Genus Macrotarsius*
                                                            Genus Mckennamorphus*
                                                            Genus Microchoerus*
                                                            Genus Nannopithe *
                                                            Genus Necrolemur*
                                                            Genus Omomys*
                                                            Genus Ourayia*
                                                            Genus Pseudoloris*
                                                            Genus Rooneyia*
                                                            Genus Shoshonius*
                                                            Genus Stockia*
                                                            Genus Teilhardina*
                                                            Genus Tetonius*
                                                            Genus Trogolemus*
                                                            Genus Uintanius*
                                                            Genus Utahia*
                                                            Genus Washakus*
                                                   Family Tarsiidae........................tarsiers
                                                            Genus Tarsius
                                          Infraorder Anthropoidea...........monkeys, apes, & humans
                                             Parvorder Platyrrhini................new world monkeys
                                                Superfamily Ceboidea
                                                   Family Atelidae*
                                                            Genus Cebupitheciae*
                                                            Genus Homunculus*
                                                            Genus Stirtonia*
                                                            Genus Tremacebus*
                                                            Genus Xenothrix*
                                                   Family Callithriciae...................marmosets
                                                      Subfamily Callithricinae
                                                            Genus Callithri 
                                                            Genus Leontocebus...............tamarin
                                                            Genus Cebulella
                                                            Genus Mico
                                                            Genus Marikina
                                                            Genus Tamarin
                                                            Genus Oedipomidas
                                                   Family Cebidae
                                                    unclassified
                                                            Genus Branisella*
                                                            Genus Dolichocebus*
                                                            Genus Neosaimiri*
                                                      Subfamily Callimiconinae
                                                            Genus Callimico
                                                      Subfamily Aotinae
                                                            Genus Aotes
                                                            Genus Callicebus
                                                      Subfamily Pthecinae
                                                            Genus Pithecia
                                                            Genus Chriopotes
                                                            Genus Cacajao
                                                      Subfamily Alouattinae
                                                            Genus Alouatta...................howler
                                                      Subfamily Cebinae
                                                            Genus Cebus....................capuchin
                                                            Genus Saimiri
                                                      Subfamily Atelinae
                                                            Genus Ateles..............spider monkey
                                                            Genus Brachyteles
                                                            Genus Lagothri 
                                             Parvorder Catarrhini................old world primates
                                                Superfamily Parapithecoidea*
                                                   Family Parapithecidae*
                                                            Genus Apidium*
                                                            Genus Parapithecus*
                                                Superfamily Cercopithecoidea......old world monkeys
                                                   Family Oreopithecidae*
                                                            Genus Oreopithecus*
                                                   Family Cercopithecidae
                                                    unclassified
                                                            Genus Dinopithecus*
                                                            Genus Dolichopithecus*
                                                            Genus Gorgopithecus*
                                                            Genus Libypithecus*
                                                            Genus Mesopithecus*
                                                            Genus Paradolichopithecus*
                                                            Genus Procynocephalus*
                                                            Genus Prohylobates*
                                                            Genus Victoriapithecus*
                                                      Subfamily Cercopithecinae
                                                            Genus Cercopithecoides*
                                                            Genus Macaca....................macaque
                                                            Genus Cynopithecus
                                                            Genus Cercocebus
                                                            Genus Papio......................baboon
                                                            Genus Theropithecus
                                                            Genus Cercopithecus
                                                            Genus Erythrocebus
                                                            Genus Mandrillus...............mandrill
                                                      Subfamily Colobinae
                                                            Genus Parcolobus*
                                                            Genus Presbytis..................langur
                                                            Genus Pygathri 
                                                            Genus Rhinopithcus
                                                            Genus Simias
                                                            Genus Nasalis
                                                            Genus Colobus
                                                Superfamily Hominoidea................apes & humans
                                                   Family Pliopithecidae*
                                                            Genus Dendropithecus*
                                                            Genus Limnopithecus*
                                                            Genus Pliopithecus*
                                                            Genus Propliopithecus*
                                                   Family Hylobatidae
                                                      Subfamily Hyobatinae
                                                            Genus Hylobates..................gibbon
                                                            Genus Symphlangus...............siamang
                                                   Family Pongidae
                                                    unclassified
                                                            Genus Dryopithecus*
                                                            Genus Gigantopithecus*
                                                            Genus Proconsul*
                                                            Genus Sivapithecus*
                                                      Subfamily Ponginae
                                                            Genus Pongo...................orangutan
                                                            Genus Pan....................chimpanzee
                                                            Genus Gorilla
                                                   Family Hominidae..........................humans
                                                      Subfamily Australopithecinae
                                                            Genus Australopithecus
                                                               species anamensis.......4.5-3 My ago
                                                               species afarensis...........4-2.5 My
                                                               species africanus...........2.5-2 My
                                                               species garhi...............2.5-2 My
                                                               species boisei............2.5-1.5 My
                                                               species robustus............1.5-1 My
                                                      Subfamily Anthropinae
                                                            Genus Homo
                                                               species habilis.............2 My ago
                                                               species rudolfensis...........1.2 My
                                                               species erectus.........1,500-250 ky
                                                               species ergaster........1,000-800 ky
                                                               species antecessor.........500,000 y
                                                               species neanderthalensis......150 ky
                                                               species sapiens............300,000 y
                                                                  variety archaic.........300-30 ky
                                                                  variety sapiens..........32,000 y.

Mammae Humanae

Genus Architeuthis, the Giant Squid

The Living Coelecanth, Latimeria

Human Evolution

Philosophy of Science

Home Page

Copyright (c) 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

All Living Things, in Seven Kingdoms, Note 1


Unfortunately, Friend is a politically correct jounalist who insists on marring his book with nasty environmentalist remarks, like the need to "save the human race from its recklessness and horribly inefficient ways of using energy" [p.28], as though our determination to live our lives with available technology, however inefficient this will appear in the future, is "recklessness" just because we are doing it. Friend, of course, is free to offer his own technology, which hopefully will not be less efficient, as "alternative fuels" currently are. Friend's moral indignation over other people, or reality, not measuring up to his expectations is characteristic of the political left and much of the environmental movement. On the other hand, Friend seems to be daring and politically incorrect in his appreciation of genetic engineering and biotechnology -- he deserves some credit for this.

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All Living Things, in Seven Kingdoms, Note 2;
Mammae Humanae,


This note has moved. Do not follow the link if you will be offended by discussion or images of human breasts, or if such things are not age appropriate for you. If you are viewing this page within the frame, the note will appear within the frame.

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All Living Things, in Seven Kingdoms, Note 3


Architeuthis, the Giant Squid, was until recently ranked as the largest invertebrate. It has been one of the greatest mysteries in nature, since for decades no mature animal had ever been filmed or photographed alive. It was sometimes said that one had never been seen alive, but there were several reports of sightings. Whether they were to be believed was the question, though there is no particular reason why such a report, in general, should not have been believed. Most of the reports were of sightings at night, and it now well known that many deep sea creatures come up from the depths in the dark.


Architeuthis was not like Big Foot. Remains of adult animals were found washed ashore from Britain to New Zealand, and other individuals were found in the stomachs of Sperm Whales. Intact adults have been found up to 60 feet long -- although now this is said to be an exaggeration (tentacles have been unnaturally stretched before measurement). The actual bodies (the "mantle") are less than third of that:  It is the arms and tentacles that account for the rest of the length. The two tentacles are the longest organs, used for actually snaching prey and carrying it to the mouth. Architeuthis has the largest eyes of any animal. This is consistent with its deep water habits. The squids may frequent depths of 2000 feet or more, where light from above no longer exists, but many animals generate their own light, for various reasons. Sightings of live Architeuthis at the surface have only been at night. The large eyes may also be why living individuals were not been seen at depth. Human deep sea vehicles are usually lit up like Christmas trees, with searchlights and television cameras scanning the area. This is going to be conspicuous, if not positively painful, to Architeuthis, which, if healthy, will be able to avoid being anywhere near would-be observers. Indeed, a large portion of the known species of any kind of squid have not been observed alive. They live in all oceans from top to bottom. Squids are basically pelagic, i.e. live in open water, unlike octopuses, which are benthic, i.e. tend to live on the ocean bottom -- although there are some pelagic octopi and benthic squid. Neither kind of animal has air sacs or voids in its body (although the closely related cuttlefish do). This enables them to easily adapt to any depth or pressure in the ocean. Sperm Whales can dive to great depths to eat Giant Squids, but as their lungs collapse, there are limits. The squids do fight back, since such whales often have scars that look like the work of Architeuthis. There are naturalists who have been specifically looking for Giant Squids, and hopefully they will continue to think of strategies or camouflage to overcome how or why it is that the animals tend to avoid observation.

In September 2005, news broke that Japanese scientists had finally observed a live Giant Squid at depth. They had done this back in September 2004, and I still have not seen the reason why the the news was so delayed. They took more than 500 pictures of one 25 foot long individual they found at 2,950 feet (900 meters) beneath the North Pacific Ocean. Unfortunately, they were able to do this by hooking the animal, and in its struggle to get away, it lost one of its tentacles, which was recovered by the Japanese. This sighting still doesn't seem to involve movies of direct observation from submersibles.

I have been waiting for the shows on the Discovery, National Geographic, or the (Discovery) Science Channels about all this, and now I have seen a good hour long show on the Science Channel about the achievement, called "Giant Squid: Caught on Camera." The Japanese scientists found the squid by following the sperm whales who hunt them off Japan. The whales are certainly as impressive as the Giant Squid, diving down more than a mile and staying down for a couple of hours. The undigested beaks of multiple squid are often found in the stomachs of the whales, and their hide is scarred from squid suckers. Tracking devices were placed on the whales to see how deep they were diving to hunt the squid, and that is where the pictures were caught.

There is now another issue involved here. Since 2003, complete specimens have been described of the Colossal Squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, 1925). The Colossal Squid is shorter but heavier than Architeuthis and has been receiving considerable, if not the lion's share, of media attention the last few years, since this now counts as the largest invertebrate. The largest Colossal Squid, caught in 2007, weighed in at 1091 lbs. and was 33 ft. long. While the range of the Giant Squid is through all the worlds oceans, the Colossal Squid appears to be confined to the circumantarctic Southern Ocean. How recent is the recognition of the Colossal Squid, which was originally described (in 1925) only from fragments, I can tell from my previous sourcebook on Celphalopods:  Cephalopods, A World Guide, by Mark Norman [ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany, 2000]. This handsome volume, which I bought in 2002, contains no mention whatsoever of the Colossal Squid or Mesonychoteuthis. The introduction to the Architeuthidae simply says, "Giant Squids are the largest of all the cephalopods and the largest individual intervertebrate in the world" [p.150]. This now needs to be rewritten.

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All Living Things, in Seven Kingdoms, Note 4


Until 1938, specimens of lobe-finned fishes of the Order Crossopterygii, the ancestors of amphibians, were only known from fossils. They appeared to have died out in the Cretaceous.

Then a fisherman from East London, South Africa, brought in a fish he did not recognize. He called Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer, curator of the museum in East London, to have a look at it. She could not identify the fish and called her friend, ichthyologist James Leonard Brierley Smith. After some delay, in which the fish needed to be sent to a taxidermist, Smith examined the specimen and recognized that it was a Coelacanth. The genus was named Latimeria after Marjorie. Since the fish had been damaged by the taxidermy, some questions remained until more examples were caught in 1952. Living fish were filmed under water only in 1988.

Up to six feet long and bright blue in life, but evidently not good eating (they had long been known to the locals), these dramatic fish, with their dramatic identification, gave a whole new meaning to the term "living fossil." Smith said that he could not have been more surprised if he had seen a dinosaur walking down the street.

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