Princely States & Protectorates of British India

Jammu and Kashmir
Dogra Dynasty, in Jammu
Kapur Dev1530-1570
Samil Dev1570-1594
Sangram1594-1624
Bhup Dev1624-1650
Hari Dev1650-1686
Gujai Dev (Gujja Singh)1686-1703
Dhruv Dev1703-1725
Ranjit Dev1725-1782
Brijraj Dev1782-1787
Sampuran Singh1787-1797
Jit Singh1797-1816
To Sikh Punjab, 1816-1820
Kishore Singh1820-1822
Golab SinghJammu,
1822-1856
Kashmir,
1846-1856
British Control, 1857-1948
Ranbir Singh1857-1885
Pratap Singh1885-1889,
d.1925
British rule, 1889-1898
Pratap Singhrestored,
1898-1925
Hari Singh1925-1948,
d. 1961
Ceded to India,
invaded by Pakistan,
de facto Partition,
1948-present
Travancore
Marthanda Varma1729-1758
defeats Dutch, 1741
Kartika Tirunal Rama Varma1758-1798
British Control, 1795-1948
Balarama Varma1798-1810
Gouri Laksmi Bai 1810-1815
Gouri Parvati Bai 1815-1829
Swati Tirunal1829-1847
Utram Tirunal Marthanda Varma1847-1860
Ayilam Tirunal1860-1880
Rama Varma Tirunal Rama Varma1880-1885
Sri Mulam Tirunal Rama Varma1885-1924
Setu Laksmi Bai 1924-1931
Sri Chitra Tirunal Balarama Varma1931-1949
Ceded to India, 1949

Khanate of Kalat
Mir Hassan1638-1666
Mir Ahmad1666-1695
Mir Mehrab I1695
Mir Samandar1695-1714
Mir 'Abdullah1714-1734
Mir Mohabar1734-1749
Mir Nasir I1749-1817
Mir Mahmud I1817-1831
Mir Mehrab II1831-1840
Mir Nasir II1840-1857
Mir Khudadad1857-1893
British Control, 1875-1947
Mir Mahmud II1893-1931
Mir 'Azam1931-1933
Mir Ahmad Yar1933-1948
Ceded to Pakistan, 1947

Makran, Gichki
Mehrullah Khan1898-1917
Interregnum
Azam Jan1922-1948
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948
Bhai Khan1948-1955

Kolhapur, Bhonsle
Sivaji I1700-1712
Shambhuji1712-1760
Sivaji II1760-1812
Shambhu1812-1821
Shahaji I1821-1837
Sivaji III1837-1866
Rajaram I1866-1870
Sivaji IV1870-1883
Shahu1883-1922
Rajaram II1922-1940
To Great Britain1940-1942
Sivaji V1942-1947
Shahaji II1947-1949
Ceded to India, 1947

Phatlan, Naik Nimbralkar
Nimbraj I1284-1291
Padakhala Jagdevrao Dharpatrao1291-1327
Nimbraj II1327-1349
Vanang Bhupal1349-1374
unknown
Vanangpal1390-1394
Vangoji I1394-1409
Maloji I1409-1420
Baji I1420-1445
Powarrao1445-1470
Baji II1470-1512
Mudhoji II1512-1527
Baji Dharrao1527-1560
Maloji II1560-1570
Vangoji II Jagpalrao1570-1630
Mudhoji II1630-1644
Bajaji I1644-1676
Vangoji III1676-1693
Janoji1693-1748
Mudhoji III1748-1765
unknown
Sayaji1767-1774
Maloji III1774-1777
Janoji II1777-1825
unknown
Bajaji II1827-1828
unknown
British Control, 1830's-1916
Mudhoji IV1860-1916
British rule, 1916-1948; Ceded to India, 1948

Gwalior, Sindhia
Moghul Rule, 1526-1751
Ranojiat Ujjain,
1726-1745
Jayappa1745-1755
Jankoji I1755-1761
Madhava Rao I1761-1780,
d.1794
To Great Britain1780
Madhava Rao I1780-1794
Daulat Rao1794-1827
Jankoji Rao II1827-1843
To Great Britain1843
Jayaji Rao1843-1858,
d.1886
To Great Britain1858-1948
Madhava Rao II1886-1925
Jivaji Rao1925-1948
Ceded to India, 1948

Cochin/Kochi
to Portugal, 1502-1669
Unni Rama Koil Ic.1500-1503
Unni Rama Koil II1503-1537
Vira Kerala Varma I1537-1565
Kesara Rama Varma II1565-1601
Vira Kerala Varma II1601-1615
Ravi Varma I1615-1624
Vira Kerala Varma III1624-1637
Goda Varma I1637-1645
Vira Rayira Varma1645-1646
Vira Kerala Varma IV1646-1650
Rama Varma I1650-1656
Gangadhara Lakshmi 1656-1658
Rama Varma II1658-1662
Goda Varma II1662-1663
Vira Kerala Varma V1663-1687
Dutch Control, 1669-1795
Rama Varma III1687-1693
Ravi Varma II1693-1697
Rama Varma IV1697-1701
Rama Varma V1701-1721
Ravi Varma III1721-1731
Rama Varma VI1731-1746
Kerala Varma I1746-1749
Rama Varma VII1749-1760
Kerala Varma II1760-1775
Rama Varma VIII1775-1790
British Control, 1795-1948
Rama Varma Saktan Tampuran1790-1805
Rama Varma IX1805-1809
Kerala Varma III1809-1828
Rama Varma X1828-1837
Rama Varma XI1837-1844
Rama Varma XII1844-1851
Kerala Varma IV1851-1853
Ravi Varma IV1853-1864
Rama Varma XIII1864-1888
Kerala Varma V1888-1895
Rama Varma XIV1895-1914
Rama Varma XV1914-1932
Rama Varma XVI1932-1941
Kerala Varma VI1941-1943
Ravi Varma V1943-1946
Kerala Varma VII1946-1948
Rama Varma XVII1948-1949
Ceded to India, 1948

Khanate of Amb
Ghaznavids, 999-1148, Ghurids, 1148-1213; Khwarazm Shahs, 1213-1220; Mongols, 1221-1332; Timurids, 1379-c.1472; Pakhli, c.1472-1703; local Karlugh Turk Walis, 1703-c.1790; Afghanistan, c.1790-c.1800
Hindwal
Nawwab Khan?-1818
Payenda Khan1818-1840
Jahandad Khan1840-?
Muhammad Akram Khan1868-1907
Zaman Khan1907-1936
Muhammad Farid Khan1936-1969
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948

Dir
Ghulam Khan Baba
Zafar Khan
Qasim Khan
Ghazzan Khan
Rahmat Allah Khan?-1884
Muhammad Sharif Khan1884-1890, 1896-1904
Muhammad Omara Khan1890-1896
Aurangzeb Badshah Khan1904-1925
Muhammad Shah Jahan Khan1925-1960
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948
Muhammad Shah Khusrau Khan1960-1969

Swat, Sitana
Sayyed Zaman Shah
Pir Baba Sayyed 'Ali1820-1846
Vacant
Sayyed Akbar Shah Amir-e ShariyatBadshah,
1849-1857
Sayyed Mubarak Shah1857-1858
Akhund
Abdul GhafurSheikh ul-Islam,
1845-1877
Miyangul Abdul Hanan1877-c.1887
Miyangul Abdul Khaliq1877-1892
Miyangul Said Badshah1892-1903
Miyangul Mir Badshah1892-1907
Miyangul Gulshahzada 'Abd al-Wadud1892-1917
Miyangul Shirin1892-1917
Sitana
Sayyed 'Abd al-Jabbar KhanBadshah,
1915-1917
Akhund
Miyangul Gulshahzada 'Abd al-WadudWali,
1917-1949,
d.1971
Recognized as local leaders by British, 1926
Miyangul Shirin1917-1918
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948
Miyangul 'Abd al-Haqq Jahanzeb1949-1969,
d.1987
Pakistani Rule, 1969

Hunza
Mir Salim Khan I16th century
Mir Shah Sultan Khan
Mir Shabaz Khan1710-?
Mir Shahbag Khan
Mir Shah Kisro Khan
Mir Mirza Khan
Mir Salim Khan II1790's-1825
Mir Ghazanfar Ali Khan I1825-1864
Mir Muhammed Ghazan Khan I1864-1886
Mir Safdar Ali Khan1886-1892,
d.1930
Mir Sir Muhammed Nazim Khan1892-1938
Mir Muhammed Ghazan Khan II1938-1946
Mir Muhammed Jamal Khan1946-1974,
d.1976
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948; direct rule, 1973
Mir Ghazanfar Ali Khan II1976-present

Khairpur
Mubarak 'Ali Khanat Khairpur, 1829-1839
Sahibat Hyderabad, Chief, 1832-1833
Nur Muhammad Khanat Hyderabad, Chief, 1833-1841
Muhammed Nasr Khanat Hyderabad, Chief, 1841-1843, 1833-1843
Sobdarat Hyderabad, 1833-1843
Mohammadat Hyderabad, 1833-1843
Nasr Khanat Khairpur, 1839-?
Shahdadat Hyderabad, 1841-1843
Husain 'Aliat Hyderabad, 1841-1843
British rule, 1843-1948
Talpur
Ali Murad Khan1842-1894
Faiz Mohammad Khan I1894-1909
Imam Bakhsh Khan1909-1921
Ali Nawaz Khan1921-1935
Faiz Mohammad Khan II1935-1947
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948-1955
George Ali Murad Khan1947-1955
Direct Pakistani rule, 1955

Bahawalpur, Daudputra
Moghul Rule, 1526-1802
Sadiq Mohammed I1739-1746
Mohammed Bahawal I1746-1749
Mubarrak1749-1772
Mohammed Bahawal II1772-1809
Sadiq Mohammed II1809-1825
Mohammed Bahawal III1825-1852
Sadiq Mohammed III1852-1853
Fateh Mohammed1853-1858
Mohammed Bahawal IV1858-1866
Sadiq Mohammed IV1866-1899
Mohammed Bahawal V1899-1906/1907
Sadiq Mohammed V1906/1907-1955,
d.1966
Ceded to Pakistan, 1948; direct rule, 1955

Patiala
Ala Singh1762-1765
Amar Singh1765-1781
Sahib Singh1781-1813
Karam Singh1813-1845
Narindar Singh1845-1862
Mohindar Singh1862-1876
Rajindar Singh1876-1900
Bhupindar Singh1900-1938
Yadavindar Singh1938-1948
Ceded to India, 1948

Bikaner, Rathor
Bika Rao1465-1504
Naro1504-1505
Lunkaran1505-1526
Jetsi1526-1542
Kalyan Singh1542-1571
Raya Singh Raja1571-1612
Dalpat Singh1612-1613
Sur Singh1613-1631
Karan Singh1631-1669
Anup Singh Maharaja1669-1698
Sarup Singh1698-1700
Sujan Singh1700-1736
Zorawar Singh1736-1745
Gaja Singh1745-1787
Raja Singh1787
Pratap Singh1787
Surat Singh1787-1828
Ratan Singh1828-1851
Sardar Singh1851-1872
Dungar Singh1872-1887
Ganga Singh1887-1943
Sadul Singh1943-1949
Ceded to India, 1948

Bundi, Hara Chauhan
Deva1342-?
Napuji
Hamuji1384-1400
Vir Singh1400-1415
Biru1415-1470
Bandu1470-1491
Narayan Das1491-1527
Suraj Mal1527-1531
Surtan Singh1531-1544
Surjan Singh1544-1585
Bhoj Singh1585-1608
Ratan Singh1608-1632
Chatra Singh1632-1658
Bhao Singh1658-1682
Anirudh Singh1682-1696
Budh Singh1696-1735
Dalel Singh1735-1749
Umaid Singh1749-1770
Ajit Singh1770-1773
Bishen Singh1773-1821
Ram Singh1821-1889
Raghubir Singh1889-1927
Ishwari Singhji Bahadur1927-1945
Bahadur Singh1945-1949,
d.1977
Ceded to India, 1947

Jaipur, Kachwaha
Sodhdeva966-1006, or c.1096-c.1128
Dulha Rao1006-1036, or c.1128-c.1136
Kankal1036-1038, or c.1136-c.1138
Maidal1038-1039, or c.1138-c.1139
Hunadeva1039-1053, or c.1139-c.1153
Kantal I (Janaddeva)1053-1070, or c.1153-c.1185
Pujanadeva1070-1084, or c.1185-c.1191
Malesi1084-1146, or c.1191-?
Byala1146-1179, or c.1200-c.1250
Rajadeva1179-1216, or c.1250
Kilhan1216-1276
Kantal II1276-1317
Jansi1317-1366
Udayakarna
Nara Singh
Banbir1413-1424, or 1428-1439
Udha Rao1424-1453 or 1439-1467
Chandrasena1453-1502, or 1467-1502
Prithvi Singh I1502-1527
Puranmal1527-1534
Bhima1534-1537
Ratan1537-1547
Baharmalla1547-1574
Bhagwan Das1574-1589
Man Singh I1589-1614
Jagat Singh I1614
Bhao Singh1614-1622
Jaya Singh I1622-1667
Rama Singh I1667-1688
Bishan Singh1688-1700
Sawai Jaya Singh II1700-1743
Ishwari Singh1743-1750
Madhu Singh I1750-1768
Prithvi Singh II1768-1778
Pratap Singh1778-1803
Jagat Singh II1803-1818
Man Singh II (Mohan Singh)1818-1819
Jaya Singh III1819-1835
Rama Singh II1835-1881
Sawai Madhu Singh II1881-1922
Sawai Man Singh II1922-1949
Ceded to India, 1948

Jaisalmer, Bhati
Jaisal1156-c.1180
Salivahan
Baijal
Kelan
Chachigdeva Ic.1219-c.1250
Karan Singh Ic.1250-c.1278
Lakhasenac.1278-c.1281
Punyapalac.1281
Jait Singh Ic.1281-c.1300
Mulraja Ic.1300
To Delhic.1300-1399
Duda
Ghar Singhc.1331-1361
Kehar1361-?
Lakhmana
to Timurids, 1399-1413; to Delhi, 1413-1526
Bairi Singh I1436-c.1448
Chachigdeva IIc.1448-1467
Devidas1467-1496
Jait Singh II1496-1528
to the Moghuls, 1526-1818
Karan Singh II1528
Lunkaran1528-1550
Malladeva1550-1561
Har Raja1561-1577
Bhima1577-1613
Kalyandas1613-1650
Manohardas1650
Sabal Singh1650-1661
Amar Singh1661-1702
Jaswant Singh1702-1707
Budh Singh1707-1721
Tej Singh1721-1722
Sawai Singh1722
Akhai Singh1722-1762
Mulraja II1762-1819
To Great Britain1818-1948
Gaja Singh1819-1846
Ranjit Singh1846-1864
Bairi Singh II1864-1891
Salivahan II1891-1914
Jawahir Singh1914-1949
Girdhar Singh1949
Ceded to India, 1949

Jhalawar, Jhala
Madan Singh1838-1843
Prithvi Singh1845-1875
Zalim Singh1876-1896,
d.1912
To Great Britain directly1896-1899
To Great Britain1775-1948
Bhawani Singh Bahadur1899-1929
Rajendra Singhji1929-1943
Harichandra Singhji1943-1949,
d.1967
Ceded to India, 1947

Jodhpur, Rathor
Chunda Rao1382-?
Kanha
Sata
Ranamalla
Jodha1438-1488
Satal1488-1491
Suja1491-1515
Ganga1515-1532
Malladeva1532-1584
Udaya Singh Raja1584-1595
Sura Singh1595-1620
Gaja Singh1620-1638
Jaswant Singh I1638-1680
Ajit Singh1680-1725
Abhaya Singh Maharaja1725-1750
Rama Singh1750-1751,
1752-1773
Bakht Singh1751-1752
Vijaya Singh1752,
1773-1792
Bhim Singh1792-1803
Man Singh1803-1843
Takht Singh1843-1873
Jaswant Singh II1873-1895
Sardar Singh1895-1911
Sumer Singh1911-1918
Umaid Singh1918-1947
Hanwant Singh1947-1949
Ceded to India, 1948

Kotah, Hara Chauhan
Madho Singh1635-1656
son of Ratan Singh, Rajah of Bundi
Mokund Singh1656-1658
Jagat Singh1658-1669
Kishor Singh I1669-1685
Ram Singh I1685-1707
Bhim Singh I1707-1720
Arjun Singh1720-1724
Durjan Sal1724-1756
Ajit Singh1756-1759
Chhatar Sal I1759-1766
Guman Singh1766-1771
Umaid Singh1771-1819
Kishor Singh II1819-1828
Ram Singh II1828-1866
Chhatar Sal II1866-1889
Umaid Singh II Bahadur1889-1940
Bhim Singh II1940-1949,
d.1991
Ceded to India, 1947

Tonk, Haiyati
Amir 'Ali Khan1818-1834
Pathan leader settled after Third Anglo-Maratha War, 1817-1818
Wazir ud-Dawla Muhammad Khan1834-1864
Muhammad 'Ali Khan1864-1867,
d.1895
Muhammad Ibrahim 'Ali Khan1867-1930
Muhammad Sa'adat 'Ali Khan1930-1947
Ceded to India, 1947
Muhammad Faruq 'Ali Khan1947-1948
Muhammad Isma'il 'Ali Khan1948-1949,
d.1974

Udaipur, Mewar Udaipur, Guhila
Guhilc.569-c.603
Bhojc.603-c.615
Mahendra Ic.615-c.625
Nagaditya.c.625-c.646
Shiladityac.646-c.661
Aparajitc.661-c.688
Mahendra IIc.688-c.716
Kalbhoj (Bappa Rawal)c.734-c.753
Khommana Ic.753-c.773
Mattatac.773-c.793
Bhartripatta Ic.793-c.813
Simhac.813-c.828
Khommana IIc.828-c.853
Mahayakac.853-c.878
Khommana IIIc.878-c.942
Bhartripatta IIc.942-c.943
Vacant
Allatac.951-c.953
Vacant
Naravahanac.971-c.973
Salivahanac.973-c.977
Saktikumarac.977-c.993
Ambaprasadac.993-c.1007
Suchivarmanc.1007-c.1021
Naravarmanc.1021-c.1035
Anantavarmanc.1035
Kirtivarmanc.1035-c.1051
Yogarajac.1051-c.1068
Vairatac.1068-c.1088
Hamsapalac.1088-c.1103
Vairi Singhc.1103-c.1107
Vijaya Singhc.1108-c.1127
Ari Singh Ic.1127-c.1138
Choda Singhc.1138-c.1148
Vikrama Singh (Vikramaditya I)c.1148-c.1158
Rana Singh (Karan Singh I)c.1158-c.1168
Kshema Singhc.1168-c.1172
Samanta Singhc.1172-c.1179
Kumara Singhc.1179-c.1191
Mathana Singhc.1191-c.1211
Padma Singhc.1211-c.1213
Jaitra Singhc.1213-c.1253
Vacant
Teja Singhc.1261-c.1267
Vacant
Samara Singhc.1273-c.1302
Ratna Singh Ic.1302-c.1303
Lakhana Singhc.1303-c.1314
To Delhi, c.1314-c.1326
Sisodia
Hammir Ic.1326-c.1364
Kshetra Singhc.1364-c.1382
Laksha Singhc.1382-c.1420
Mokalac.1420-1433
Kumbhakarna1433-1468
Udaya Karan1468-1473
Rayamalla1473-1509
Sangrama Singh I1509-1528
Ratna Singh II1528-1532
Vikramaditya I1532-1535
Ranbir1535-1537
Udaya Singh1537-1572
Pratap Singh I1572-1597
Amar Singh I1597-1620
Karan Singh II1620-1628
Jagat Singh I1628-1652
Raja Singh I1652-1680
Jaya Singh1680-1699
Amar Singh II1699-1711
Sangrama Singh II1711-1734
Jagat Singh II1734-1752
Pratap Singh II1752-1754
Raja Singh II1754-1761
Ari Singh II1761-1773
Hammir II1773-1778
Bhim Singh1778-1828
Jawan Singh1828-1838
Sardar Singh1838-1842
Sarup Singh1842-1861
Sambhu1861-1874
Sujjan Singh1874-1884
Fateh Singh1884-1930
Bhopal Singh1930-1949
Ceded to India, 1948

Baroda, Gaekwar
to Moghuls, 1573-1734
Pilaji Rao1721-1732
Damaji Rao1732-1768
Govind Rao1768-1771,
1793-1800
Sayaji Rao I1771-1789
Manaji Rao1789-1793
Anand Rao1800-1818
Sayaji Rao II1818-1847
Ganpat Rao1847-1856
Khande Rao1856-1870
Malhar Rao1870-1875
Sayaji Rao III1875-1939
Pratap Singh1939-1948
Ceded to India, 1948

Gondal, Jadeja
Kumbhoji I1634-1679
Sagramji I1679-1714
Haloji1714-1753
Kumbhoji II1753-1790
Muluji1790-1792
Dajibhai1792-1800
Devaji1800-1812
Nathuji1812-1814
Kanuji1814-1821
Chandrasinhji1821-1841
Bhanabhai1841-1851
Sagramji II1851-1869
Bhagwatsinhji1869-1944
Bhojrajjisinhji1944-1948,
d.1952
Ceded to India, 1948

Junagadh, Babi
Muhammad Bahadur Khan I1748-1758
Muhammad Mahabat Khanji I1758-1760,
1762-1774
Muzaffar Khanji Ja'afar1760-1762
Muhammad Hamid Khanji I1774-1811
Muhammad Bahadur Khan II1811-1840
British control, 1816
Muhammad Hamid Khanji II1840-1851
Muhammad Mahabat Khanji II1851-1882
Muhammad Bahadur Khanji III1882-1892
Muhammad Rasul Khanji1892-1911
Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III1911-1947,
d.1959
Ceded to India, 1947

Manavadar, Babi
Diler Khanji Salabat1733-1760
Sardar Nathu Khanji1760-?
Ghazanfar Khanji Nathu
British control, 1818
Kamal ud-din Khanji
Zorawar Khanji Kamal?-1882
Ghazanfar Khanji Zorawar1882-1888
Fateh ud-din Khanji Ghazanfar1888-1918
Ghulam Moin ud-din Khanji Fateh1918-1947,
d.2003
Fatima Siddiqa Begum Sahiba Regent,
1918-1931
Ceded to India, 1947

Kutch, Chavada Rajput
JadoJam
Lakho Jadani1147-1175
Ratto Rayadhan1175-1215
Othoji1215-1255
Gaoji1255-1285
Vahenji1285-1321
Samma Rajput
Murvoji1321-1347
Kaiyaji1347-1386
Amarji1386-1429
Bheemji1429-1472
Hamirji1472-1510
Khengarji IRao,
1510-1586
Bharmalji I1586-1632
Bhojrajji1632-1645
Khengarji II1645-1654
Tamachiji1655-1666
Rayadhanji I1666-1698
Pragmalji IMaharao,
1698-1715
Gohodaji I1715-1719
Deshalji I1719-1741
Lakhpatji1741-1761
Gohodaji II1761-1779
Rayadhanji II1779-1813
To Sind, 1813-1814
Bharmalji II1814-1819
British control, 1815-1948
Deshalji II1819-1861
Pragmalji II1861-1876
Khengarji III1876-1942
Vijayaraja1942-1948
Madan Singh1948
Ceded to India, 1948

Nawanagar, Jadeja
Ravaji1535/40-1562
Vibhaji I1562-1569
Sataji1569-1608
Lakhaji I1608-1645
Ranmalji I1645-1661
Raisinhji I1661-1664
Vacant
Tamachi I1673-1690
Raisinhji II1690-1710
Lakhaji II1710-1718
Hardholji1718-1727
Tamachi II1727-1743
Lakhaji III1743-1768
Jasaji1768-1814
Sataji1814-1820
Ranmalji II1820-1852
Vibhaji II1852-1895
Jashwantsinhji1895-1906
Ranjitsinhji1906-1933
Digvijaysinhji1933-1948
Ceded to India, 1948

Radhanpur, Babi
Jawan Mard Khan I Bahadur1715-1729
Jawan Mard Khan II Bahadur1753-1765
Muhammad Najm ud-din Khan1765-1787
Muhammad Ghazi ud-din Khan1787-1813
Muhammad Sher Khan I Ghazi1813-1825
Muhammad Jorawar Sher Khan1825-1874
British control, 1825
Muhammad Bismillah Khan1874-1895
Haji Muhammad Sher Khan II1895-1910
Muhammad Jalal ud-din Khan1910-1936
Murtaza Khan Jorawar1936-1947,
d.1990's
Ceded to India, 1947

Indore, Holkar
Malhar Rao I1728-1764
Malle Rao1764-1766
Ahalya Bai 1765-1795
Tukoji1795-1798
Jaswant Rao I1798-1811
Malhar Rao II1811-1834
Hari Rao1834-1843
Tukoji Rao II1843-1886
Sivaji Rao1886-1903
Tukoji Rao III1903-1926
Jaswant Rao II1926-1948
Ceded to India, 1948

Orchha, Bundela
Pancham Singh1048-1071
Virbhadra Singh1071-1087
Karanpal Singh1087-1112
Kinnar Shah1112-1130
Shaukan Dev1130-1152
Nanak Dev I1152-1159
Mohanpal Singh1159-1197
Abhaybhupati Singh1197-1215
Arjunpal Singh1215-1231
Virpal Singh1231-1251
Sohanpal Singh1251-1259
Sahjendra Singh1259-1283
Nanak Dev II1283-1307
Prithviraj Singh1307-1339
Ram Singh1339-1375
Ramchandra Singh1375-1384
Mednepal Singh1384-1437
Arjun Dev1437-1468
Malkhan Singh1468-1501
Rudra Pratap1501-1531
Bharti Chand1531-1554
Madhukar Shah1554-1592
Ram Shah1592-1604
Vir Singh Deo1604-1627
Jhujhar Singh1627-1635
Devi Singh1635-1641
Pahar Singh of Kaniyadana1641-1653
Sujan Singh I1653-1672
Indramani Singh1672-1675
Jashwant Singh1675-1684
Bhagwat Singh1684-1689
Udwat Singh1689-1735
Prithvi Singh1735-1752
Sanwant Singh1752-1765
Hati Singh1765-1768
Man Singh1768-1775
Bharti Singh1775-1776
Vikramajit1776-1817,
1834
Dharam Pal1817-1834
Tej Singh1834-1842
Sujan Singh II1842-1848,
d.1854
Hamir Singh1848-1865,
Maharaja,
1865-1874
Pratap Singh1874-1930
Vir Singh1930-1950,
d.1956
Ceded to India, 1947

Datia, Bundela
To Orchha
Bhagwan Rao1626-1656
Subha Karan1656-1683
Dalpat Singh1683-1706
Ramachandra Singh1706-1733
Indrajit Singh1733-1762
Shatrujit Singh1762-1801
Parichhat SinghRaja,
1801-1839
Bijai Singh Bahadur1839-1857
Bhawani Singh Bahadur1857-1865,
Maharaja,
1865-1901
Govind Singh1901-1950,
d.1951
Ceded to India, 1947

Rewah
Shaktivan1499-?
Vir Singh
Ramchandra1555-1592
Birbhadra1592-1597
To the Moghuls, 1597-1618
Baghela
VikramadityaRaja,
1618-1630
Amar Singh1630-1643
Anup Singh1643-1660
Bhav Singh1660-1690
Anirudh Singh1690-1700
Avdhut Singh1700-1755
Ajit Singh1755-1809
Jai Singh Deo1809-1835
British control, 1812-1947
Vishwanath Singh1835-1843
Raghuraj SinghMaharajah,
1843-1880
Venkat Raman Ramanuj Prasad Singh1880-1918
Gholab Singh1918-1946,
d.1950
Martand Singh1946-1950,
d.1995
Ceded to India, 1947

The information here is entirely from Bruce R. Gordon's Regnal Chronologies. See also Hyderabad, Sikkim, & Mysore, which are Princely States that are historically significant enough that they are included on the main page for India.

Legally, there is no reason why the Princely States should have surrendered to India or Pakistan. Most realized, however, that, apart from nationalistic appeals, it was a matter of force. Indeed, Princes who tried to remain independent ended up annexed by force -- with the sole exception of Sikkim. That the Hindu Prince of Muslim Kashmir wished to go to India, or the Muslim Nizam of Hindu Hyderabad wished to go with Pakistan (or be independent), resulted in the invasion Kashmir by Pakistan and of Hyderabad by India. While little bitterness lingers over this treatment of Hyderabad, one war after another, and a continuing campaign of Terrorism, has been fought over the de facto partition of Kashmir.

India pensioned off the Princes, who often simply continued living in their palaces, much as they had under the British. Eventually, Indira Gandhi simply cut off their Government support.

Index of Princely States & Protectorates of British India

British Emperors of India

The Sun Never Set on the British Empire

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Philosophy of History

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Copyright (c) 2010 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved

Malaya, Straits Settlements, and Singapore

Sultan of Malacca
Mahmud Shâh1488-1528
Afonso de Albuquerque conquers Malacca, 1511; Portuguese Malacca, 1511-1641
Sultans of Johor/Johore;
Malacca-Johor Dynasty
Alauddin Riayat Shah II1528-1564
Muzaffar Shah II1564-1570
Abdul Jalil Shah I1570-1571
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II1571-1597
Alauddin Riayat Shah III1597-1615
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah1615-1623
Abdul Jalil Shah III1623-1677
Dutch Malacca, 1641-1824
Ibrahim Shah1677-1685
Mahmud Shah II1685-1699
Bendahara Dynasty
Abdul Jalil IV (Bendahara Abdul Jalil)1699-1720
Malacca-Johor Dynasty
Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah (Raja Kecil)1718-1722
Bendahara Dynasty
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah1722-1760
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah1760-1761
Ahmad Riayat Shah1761-1761
Mahmud Shah III1761-1812
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah1812-1819
Hussein Shah (Tengku Long)1819-1835
cedes Singapore to East India Company, 1826
Ali1835-1877
Temenggong Dynasty
Raja Temenggung Tun Ibrahim1855-1862
Abu Bakar1862-1895
Ibrahim1895-1959
Ismail1959-1981
Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj1981-2010
Ibrahim Ismail2010-present

The Straits Settlements $10 currency note from 1930 recaptures a vanished era of colonialism. The languages on the note are English, Chinese, and Malay. The unit of the currency, the dollar, reflects the use of the Spanish silver dollars brought to the Philippines from Mexico over the course of the life of the Spanish colonial empire. These coins became the basis of the modern currencies of China, Japan, and elsewhere in the Far East, although, as elsewhere, the silver is long gone.

The origin of the Straits Settlements goes back to Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (17811826). Already familiar with Indonesia from British actions there during the Napoleonic Wars (when the Netherlands was occupied by France), Raffles was appointed Governor-General of British possessions in Indonesia and took up residency in Bencoolen (Bengkulu), on Sumatra, in 1818. He established a presence at Singapore, ("lion city"), in 1819. The Dutch considered this part of their sphere of influence, but things got sorted out in a treaty in 1824. Bencoolen was swaped for Dutch interests on the Malay Peninsula. In 1826, the Sultan of Johor ceded any claims to Singapore and the other British possessions that in the same year were organized as the Straits Settlements -- named after the Malacca Strait between Sumatra and Malaya, which was the natural sea lane between India and the South China Sea. The Settlements were at first under the authority of the East India Company. When the Company was abolished, they were briefly under the India Office but then were made an independent Crown Colony under the Colonial Office. This arrangement continued from 1867 to 1946, when the Straits Settlements as such was abolished and its constituents reorganized.

Singapore, Residents
Maj-Gen. William Farquhar1819-1823
Dr. John Crawfurd1823-1826
ceded to East India Company by Sultan of Johor, 1826; Straits Settlements, Governors
Robert Fullerton1826-1830
Residency of the Presidency of Bengal, 1830-1858
Robert Ibbetson1830-1833
Kenneth Murchison1833-1836
Sir Samuel George Bonham1836-1843
Vacant, 1843
Colonel Major-General William John Butterworth1843-1855
Edmund Augustus Blundell1855-1859
Under the India Office, 1858-1867, Colonial Office, 1867-1946
Major General Sir William Orfeur Cavenagh1859-1867
Major General Sir Harry St. George Ord1867-1873
Sir Andrew Clarke1873-1875
Sir William Jervois1875-1877
Major General Edward Archibald Harbord AnsonActing, 1877
Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson1877-1879
Major General Edward Archibald Harbord AnsonActing, 1879-1880
Sir Frederick Weld1880-1887
Sir Cecil Clementi Smith1887-1893
William Edward MaxwellActing, 1893-1894
Sir Charles Mitchell1894-1899
James Alexander SwettenhamActing, 1899-1901
Sir Frank Swettenham1901-1904
Sir John Anderson1904-1911
Sir Arthur Young1911-1920
Sir Laurence Guillemard1920-1927
Sir Hugh Clifford1927-1930
Sir Cecil Clementi1930-1934
Sir Shenton Thomas1934-1942
Japanese Occupation of the Straits Settlements, February 15, 1942 to September 12, 1945
Lord Louis MountbattenMilitary Governor, 1945-1946
Sir Shenton Thomas1945-1946
Singapore, Governors
Sir Franklin Charles Gimson1946-1952
Wilfred Lawson BlytheActing, 1952
Sir John Fearns Nicoll1952-1955
William GoodeActing, 1955
Sir Robert Brown Black1955-1957
William Goode1957-1959

The principal constituents of the Straits Settlements were Singapore, Malacca, Penang (Prince of Wales Island), and the Dindings, which were ceded by the Sultan of Perak in 1874 but subsequently administered by him. Additional territories were the Province Wellesley, opposite Penang, ceded to the East India Company in 1798 by the Sultan of Kedah (and subsequently under the jurisdiction of Penang); Christmas Island, annexed by Britain in 1888, attached to Singapore in 1946, and then transfered to Australia in 1957; and Labuan, off the coast of Borneo, which was ceded to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei in 1846, incorportated into the Straits Settlements in 1906, joined to British North Borneo in 1946, and then became a part of Sabah (Malaysia) in 1963.

Readers of the Sherlock Holmes story, The Hound of the Baskervilles [1901-1902], will remember how things began with Dr. Mortimer forgetfully leaving his walking stick at 221B Baker Street. Holmes and Watson speculate on his identity by examining the stick. They say that it is of the kind called a "Penang lawyer," which meant that it had been made from an East Asiatic palm, and/or that it had been hollowed out and filled with lead, so that it might be used as a weapon. It was not unusual in the London of the 1890's that someone might be equipped in this way. However, today in both America and Britain this would be illegal, regarded in America as a "concealed weapon" and in Britain, where self-defense has been effectively outlawed, as a weapon at all.

The hinterland of Malay consisted of native states, such as Johore, under the Protection of Britain, and thus were the equivalent of the Princely States in India. They survive until today as part of Malaysia.

Malaya became a focus of world history with the Japanese invasion in 1941. In the post-World War I Naval Treaties, Britain had agreed with Japan to withdraw forces from the Pacific to Singapore, which then would become the hub of British defense in the area. Almost immediately a grave miscalculation was made. It was not believed that an invader could come down through the Malay jungle and attack Singapore from the mainland side. The guns put in place to defend the city thus could only point out to sea. Since the Japanese did come down the Malay Peninsula through the jungle, the whole defense strategy for Singapore collapsed.

However, even if this miscalculation has not occurred, by 1941 Britain was in no position to properly defend Singapore or any of the rest of South-East Asia. There were certainly enough troops available, some of whom simply landed to be immediately surrendered to the Japanese; but a real defense could not be mounted without aircraft, and neither Britain nor the United States had anything like what was needed for even a minimal contest against the Japanese. The matériel for war, whether planes, tanks (which, again, were thought to be useless in Malaya), or other proper weapons were not available at the time. Shortly after the War began, the British sent out the battlecruiser Repulse and the new battleship Prince of Wales in a show of force; but on 10 December 1941, the Japanese simply sank both of them with long range torpedo bombers flying out of Saigon. This was another miscalculation. Despite the role of aircraft in their own sinking of the German battleship Bismark, the British had not yet appreciated how vulnerable unescorted ships were at sea to air attack. It was a lesson everyone learned quickly, but the fiasco did its part to demonstrate, not just how vulnerable the battleships would be, but how vulerable Singapore would be.

Nevertheless, what the British could not know was how close to the edge the enemy was. The Japanese always ran their operations on a shoestring, and the brilliant General Yamashita, heavily outnumbered (!), got the British to surrender Singapore with a considerable element of bluff. Their behavior was then, of course, disgraceful. Prisoners were murdered and worked to death; local Chinese were massacred; and while British prestige had been taken down several rungs, or perhaps even punctured altogether, the Japanese soon demonstrated that there were worse things in the world than British colonialism.

While Singapore failed in its strategic role when the day of reckoning came, the fault was not in its conception or its possession, just in the declining and beleaguered power of Britain to properly supply its defense needs (as well as that troubling misconception about the jungle, whose proper lessons the British would learn in Burma). Otherwise, the strategy of the British was generally vindicated, as Singapore was simply one in a string of strategic bases that secured British communication and trade from Europe to India and China. One of the earliest and most remarkable of these, captured in 1704, was Gibraltar, which commanded and still commands the Strait of Gibraltar at the mouth of Mediterranean Sea. Next was Malta, captured from the French in 1800. The value of these possessions, already considerable, was vastly magnified once Britain acquired its share in the Suez Canal (1875), and then occupied Cyrpus (1875) and finally Egypt itself (1882) to protect its interests. A base in Aden had earlier been acquired (1839) with a view to securing communications with India, and this now became of greater value as the route to India through the Canal became the most important commercial and strategic highway in the entire British Empire.

The whole British system of bases begins to look like the arrangements of Antigonus II Gonatas, King of Macedonia, to exercise control over Greece with the small strategic possessions of Corinth, Chalcis, and Demetrias. These came to be called the "Fetters of Greece," and it is not difficult to imagine other powers viewing British bases with similar metaphor and dismay. The meaning of any such possessions, however, was of course dependent on the existence of the Navy to use them and protect them. In 1941, although Britain still had the largest Navy in the world, it was not large enough for its needs, let alone conceived or built with an eye to the strategic, operational, and tactical requirements of the Pacific War -- where few, indeed, understood those requirements until the harsh lessons of battle emerged in the War itself.

Yet, after a fashion, in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, Britain had surrendered its strategic needs, which were for a Three Ocean Navy, by accepting parity with the United States Navy, which only had two Oceans to defend. The previous rule was the "two power standard," according to which the Royal Navy should have been as large as the U.S. and Japanese fleets combined. As it happened, neither Allied Navy was ready for World War II; but it is also questionable whether Britain even had the economic resources to have kept up the kind of Navy it needed after World War I. It certainly didn't have the will -- and, to be sure, groups of new battleships would have been wasted anyway, if they all just would have been sunk like the Repulse and the Prince of Wales. The British, who had developed the first aircraft carriers, still had only the dimmest idea how dominant they would become in the Pacific War. Nobody else did either, not even the Japanese.

Singapore may have failed in part because it had never previously been tested. The British had frequently defended Gibraltar and had fought in Egypt against the Turks in World War I and then the Italians and Germans in World War II. For all its strategic significance, Singapore had simply never been the focus of any war, and any problems with its defense plans were only to be found out when it was too late to do much about it. All this in its own way was a tribute to the Pax Britannica, but such previous success was cold comfort when the Japanese were able to fathom and exploit every weakness.

With Britain now long gone from India, the Middle East, Malaya, Indonesia, and the Far East, the strategic role of Singapore and its like nevertheless continues in the particular form of the Indian Ocean Atoll of Diego Garcia, now formally part of the British Indian Ocean Territory. This is used as an air and naval base, perhaps only secondarily by Britain, but most importantly by the United States. The American military in the Gulf, Iraq, and Afghanistan is heavily dependent on Diego Garcia for logistical staging, and from which bombers can fly missions directly into these theatres. The operations at Diego Garcia are shrouded in such secrecy that in 1966 the British deported all the civilian inhabitants of the place. Anti-war protests and rumors, concerning all American practices in recent wars (e.g. treatment of prisoners, kinds of munitions used, etc.), are thus rife over Diego Garcia, although, of course, protestors have no chance of demonstrating on site or interfering in its operations. To the Left, Diego Garcia is thus a modern "Fetter" employed by American "Imperialism" to oppress the world, even if the atoll is nominally under British sovereignty.

After the World War II, the British put down a Communist insurgency in Malaya. This gave the French and the Americans some confidence that that same could be done in Vietnam, but the wrong lessons seem to have been learned, and the enemy proved to be of a very different caliber.

In 1946 the Straits Settlements colony was broken up. Singapore became a Crown Colony in its own right, and the other posessions were merged with Malaya. The Federation of Malaya became independent in 1957. Self-government came to Singapore in 1959. Independence in 1963 for Singapore was in the form of joining the union of Malaysia, which combined the Federation of Malaya and with other British possessions in Borneo. This was not a happy business for Singapore, where there were riots between Chinese and Malays, even as Malaysia undertook to discriminate against ethnic Chinese. The Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, had doubts that Singapore could go it alone; but the city was nevertheless cut loose in 1965. Little did anyone know what would come of Singapore.

Singapore, Prime Ministers
Lee Kuan Yew19591990
Union with Malaysia, 1963-1965
Presidents
Yusof bin Ishak1965-1970
Yeoh Ghim SengActing, 1970-1971
Benjamin Henry Sheares1971-1981
Yeoh Ghim SengActing, 1981
C.V. (Chengara Veetil) Devan Nair1981-1985
Wee Chong JinActing, 1985
Yeoh Ghim SengActing, 1985
Wee Kim Wee1985-1993
Goh Chok Tong19902004
Ong Teng Cheong1993-1999
S.R. (Sellapan Ramanathan) Nathan1999-Present
Lee Hsien Loong2004-present

What happened was that little Singapore became one of the "Four Tigers" of East Asia -- an economic powerhouse along with Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea. In 1959, the annual per capita income of Singapore was $400, not much better than most of the Third World. By 2012, it was $50,000. According to The Economist Pocket World In Figures for 2008, Singapore was actually the 43rd largest economy in the world, ahead of states like Chile, Hungary, and New Zealand. In per capita GDP, it was 31st, ahead of Spain and Hong Kong, although now just behind New Zealand. All this was thanks to the direction of Lee Kuan Yew, whose rule came awfully close to a dictatorship. Yet with his retirement, a more or less democratic government seems to have been left functioning. But this is a no nonsense place. Singapore has been called "Disneyland with the death penalty." As in Malaysia, drug offenses can be punished with death -- although one wonders if use by locals is winked at as it often is in Malaysia.

For a while, the success of Singapore entered international discourse as representing an "Asian Way" of doing capitalism, with considerable more government control, in an authoritarian (or moralistic) regime, than was favored in Anglo-American liberalism. The slow growth and persistent unemployment of the early 90's in the United States seemed to lend some credence to the new ideology. However, in the late 90's, the "dot.com" boom sparked the U.S. economy in rapid expansion, while a severe recession hit many of the East Asian states. Suddenly, the Singapore model seemed more representative of "crony capitalism," which was actually a polite way of identifying the corruption and collusion that existed between business and government. As Adam Smith himself could have said, this collusion was little less than a conspiracy against the consumer, and the "Asian Way" was rather abruptly exploded as an appealing alternative to the neo-liberal economics of the 1980's. Nevertheless, the Four Tigers had represented real economic growth and progress, which continued in more sober form after the recession. The true key of their success was the rejection of a Keynesian, let alone a Stalinist, model of economic development. Instead, the truth of Say's Law was appreciated and capital accumulation was not only encouraged but sometimes legally mandated -- in Singapore itself, everyone was required by law to save at least a certain percentage of their income -- which then could be loaned and invested by the banks. This was Keynesian heresy, where the best thing to do with income is spend it. Of course, Say's Law had already been demonstrated in Japan, where no one ever had to tell the Japanese to both work hard and save their money. Getting the Japanese to actually buy consumer products has been a long struggle, although it is now no problem for the young -- generating its own problems.

It is remarkable that in the modern world it is still possible for a modest city state to possess an economy equal to or greater than that of many substantial nation states. This is familiar from history, when a place like Venice might be more powerful than several kingdoms combined; but one might have thought that the possibility of such places was already passing when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy in 1494. Au contraire. The Tigers have revived the phenomenon all over again.

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Copyright (c) 2011, 2013 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved